Monday, September 30, 2019

Human skin color Essay

â€Å"Virtue, then, is a state that decides, consisting in a mean, the mean relative to us, which is defined by reference to reason, that is to say, to the reason by reference to which the prudent person would define it. It is a mean between two vices, one of excess and one of deficiency† Aristotle’s definition of Virtue of Character but what is it really saying. Let us define it with the Socratic Definition per genus et differentia. Let us break it into the three parts genus, species and the differentiating factor (differentia). The genus or general topic would be virtue of character, the species or the specific area of virtue of character would be the mean between the two vices excess and deficiency, lastly is the differentiating factor or what makes the species different from other forms of it which would be the situation and how individual people can reason out different outcomes from what is required from them. Virtue is an activity of the human soul and has two parts virtue of character and virtue of intellect. Virtue of intellect is wisdom and knowledge an example would be studying at school. Virtue of character is learned by action and practice an example would be learning that cheating on tests is bad and knowing not to attempt it. Reasoning out where we stand in a particular situation is not related to knowledge or studying but rather repeated application of acts so Aristotle’s is stating acts of character not of intellect. Nothing can be to good, have to little and you have deficiency have too much and it’s excess. The mean is the middle ground between too much and too little. This mean varies on person to person. An example would be too much sun. Take a 2 people one with a fair skin tone and one with a dark skin tone. The mean amount of sun for the dark skin tone would be excess to the fair skinned person and possibly give them sunburn. Give the dark toned person the mean amount of sun required by the fair toned person and you have deficiency and could led to lack of vitamin E. But it’s up to the individual to regulate between the two through trial and error.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Darren Mansaram (or Flash as he is better off known) scored one of the best goals he had ever scored in his short career

Darren Mansaram (or Flash as he is better off known) scored one of the best goals he had ever scored in his short career. Only eighteen years of age, but an up and coming star of the future hit the sweetest of shots to keep Grimsby Town in the F. A Cup. Grimsby was playing Burnley in the third round of the F. A Cup for a place in the fourth round maybe to face one of the premiership big boys. It was a miserable day with snow coming down in buckets. The previous league match at Grimsby was called off because of a waterlogged pitch so this match was lucky to go ahead. The eighteen year old from Doncaster was named in the starting eleven to face the team they had beat 6-5 two months previously. With the ground quickly filling up, the players came out of the dressing room onto the pitch for a warm up. Every Grimsby player applauded the Grimsby fans for their support and every person in the crowd applauded back. The team started their warm-up and there, right in the middle was Darren Mansaram. This was to be his first F. A. Cup match of his career and it was definitely going to be one to remember. Kick Off was approaching quickly and the snow seemed to have cleared, so the referee gave to ‘all clear' for the match to go on. The ground was rather full as the players came out of the tunnel, the Grimsby faithful applauded their team and the Burnley faithful applauded theirs. The officials called in the two captains to determine who was to kick off. It was to be Grimsby to kick off left to right towards the away end. Flash and David ‘Digger' Soames to kick off, playing the ball back to Stuart Campbell who in turn plays it to player/manager Paul Groves. Groves loses out to Paul Weller who plays a first time ball to Arthur Gnohere. He hits a long ball over the top of the Grimsby defence, Georges Santos looks over at the linesman to see if there is an off-side, Robbie Blake chases it down, takes it around the Grimsby keeper, Danny Coyne, and hits a shot which smacks the upright. The Grimsby defence can't clear it, Tony Grant comes steaming in and whacks the ball straight over the Pontoon. The town fans cheer with sheer delight as they watch the ball disappear. Grant got right under the ball there. Danny Coyne to take the goal kick, it's a brilliant kick which Stacey Coldicott heads on straight for ‘Digger' Soames who chases it down and hits a first time shot right into the Burnley keeper's arms. A great chance for Grimsby turned into a wasted opportunity. Marlon Beresford clears the ball for Burnley, Georges Santos heads the ball clear. It's pumped straight back into the box by Mark McGregor; Coyne comes flying out of his goal and gathers the ball comfortably. He rolls it out to Gallimore who plays a first time ball to Ford. Ford to Santos, up to Cooke who controls the ball well. Cooke has the ability to take people on from here. Branch and Gnohere quickly close Cooke down. Cooke decides to dribble the ball. He's took it past Branch, skips past the challenge from Gnohere. It's three on two for Grimsby here, what can Cooke do? Who can he pick out? It's a great ball behind Cox. Digger Soames is onto it. One on one with Marlon Beresford. Beresford makes himself as big as possible, Digger slides the ball underneath Beresford and just the wrong side of the post. The Burnley supporters look happy to see the ball slide the wrong side of the upright. Great play by Grimsby, deserved a goal there. Beresford to take the goal kick. He's taking his time with it to slow down the flow of play. Super goal kick headed away by McDermott, headed on by Groves. Cleared by McGregor, Ian Moore controls the ball. Forty yards out, dribbles the ball around Coldicott, Groves comes steaming in. Moore skips past the challenge from Groves, slides a ball around the back of the Grimsby defence, Alan Moore is onto it. Just Coyne to beat. SUPER GOAL from Alan Moore, 1-0 Burnley. Coyne is absolutely furious with his defence. The Burnley fans jump up as overjoyed as Moore himself. Flash to precede the match with the kick off. He plays the ball to Digger who picks out Cooke with a pin-point pass. Cooke, back to McDermott. McDermott brings the ball in-field, Santos goes the opposite way. Great play here from Grimsby. Santos plays a neat one-two with Cooke, Santos keeps going. He sees Flash in space and plays a tidy ball around the back of the Burnley defence. Flash runs onto it. Cox comes flying in with the challenge. Flash neatly tucks the ball between Cox's legs. This is great build-up play from Mansaram. The town faithful are on their feet, urging Flash on. He spots Digger making his way into the box. Superb ball straight to the head of Digger Soames, Just wide, if anything deserved a goal that certainly did. Beresford to resume play, just a short kick out to Cox, who turns and controls well. Tony Grant receives the ball at half way. Grant runs with the ball, past Groves, past Santos. One on One with Coyne. The shot deflects off Coyne's legs straight to WELLER. 2-0 to Burnley who I dare say justify this lead. Player/Manager Groves can't believe that his side are 2-0 down to the team they beat 6-5. Where on earth was the Grimsby defence there? Digger to kick off for Town as they look to come back from 2-0 down to beat this Burnley side. Coldicott in possession of the ball for Town. Groves takes over and plays it to Cooke. Cooke attempts to play a cross-field ball to Gallimore, which finds its intended target. Gallimore plays a neat one-two with Santos. Gallimore to Campbell, who plays a first time ball to Stacy Coldicott. Town are keeping possession well here. Coldicott in midfield plays the ball back to Ford. Ford leaves it for Coyne, who hits the ball first time to out to McDermott. McDermott turns and sees Cooke in space. Cooke receives the ball at half-way. He's got time and space to run with the ball here. Cooke takes the ball on, Gnohere comes across. Cooke skips past the challenge from Gnohere. The crowd urges Cooke on. Cooke comes in-field, he's got time to cross a ball in. It's a superb ball onto the head of Mansaram. It smacks the upright and bounces out. Groves has a shot, which is blocked by Branch. Coldicott hits a shot which is saved by Beresford. What a goalmouth scramble. Campbell hits a screamer which is blocked on the line by Cox. Finally Ian Moore clears the ball for Burnley and the defence can breathe again. Grimsby are really trying to get back into the match. Graham Rodger the assistant manager screams instructions to the captain McDermott and to player-manager Paul Groves. For the time being it is Burnley in the lead and Burnley in possession with Papadopoulos. This is his first real touch in this exciting and productive first half. Thirty Seven minutes in and its Grimsby Town 0, Burnley 2. Papadopoulos with a one-two with Grant. Papadopoulos keeps going and slides a ball through the middle of the defence. Alan Moore is chasing the ball down, Coyne comes flying out of his goal. Moore has to get past Santos first. He's done that successfully. He's one on one with Coyne. Coyne still flying from his goal line, collects the ball comfortable. The danger is over for Grimsby. Burnley are to make a substitution here, It's going to be Paul Weller to leave the field of play to be replaced by Paul Cook. Grimsby will be happy to hear the referee's whistle for half time. There is two minutes plus stoppage time left. McDermott is in possession for Grimsby. He's trying to slow things down here. He plays it back to Coyne, Coyne controls the ball and takes his time before playing the ball to Gallimore. The fourth official holds up the electronic board. He's indicated one added on minute. Gallimore to Georges Santos straight to Groves. Groves hits a ball over the top of the Burnley defence, Digger chases after it. Last chance for Grimsby. Digger has two defenders to beat. Cox and Gnohere. He beats Cox comfortably, only Gnohere to beat. Gnohere takes the ball off Digger and pumps a ball up-field. The Burnley crowd breath a sigh of relief. The referee blows for half time. What an exciting, action-packed first half, more of the same is expected in the second. Burnley are two goals up here against a weak Grimsby side compared to the one almost two months ago. Well, Grimsby have had the most possession but it's Burnley who have got the rewards for their hard work. At half time here at Blundell Park, it's Grimsby Town nil Burnley two. Half time entertainment here at Blundell Park today with to local junior sides are playing in a mini tournament. I wonder what is going on in both changing rooms, do you? Well wonder no more because in both changing rooms we have installed microphone camera's, so off to the home changing room to get an idea of the atmosphere in there. What a pathetic performance you lot are showing, absolutely pathetic' Graham Rodger, the assistant manager, was yelling at his players. ‘Either buck your ideas up or some of you are going to be put on the transfer list' he continued. Ok, I think we are getting the point that the Town assistant manager is appalled with the first half performance of the mariners. Off to the away dressing room we go. I presume it's a better atmosphere in there. ‘E. I. E. I. O through the F. A Cup we go, when we get Man United, this is what we'll sing. We are Burnley, we are Burnley, Ternant is our king' Wow, they are really enjoying today. Grimsby Town are coming out for the second half. Grimsby Town look fired up for a tense and nerve wracking forty-five minutes for the Grimsby Town supporters. There is no sign of Burnley yet. I can tell you there have been no substitutions during half time. Papadopoulos and Blake to get this second half under way. Blake back to Grant who gives the ball to Cook. Cook plays a neat one-two with Branch, Cook continues down this left hand touchline. He comes in-field and gives the ball to Alan Moore who loses out to Groves. Groves, who is just inside his own half, plays the ball back to Santos who kicks it first time to Gallimore. Santos looks like he has injured himself but play continues with Gallimore. Gallimore to Campbell. An over-hit pass there from Gallimore which Campbell controls brilliantly. He turns, looks up and sees Digger in Space. Campbell decides to take the ball on himself. Santos is signalling to the bench that he wants to come off. Campbell to Mansaram. Mansaram to ‘Digger' Soames. Soames tricks the defender into going one way and he goes the other. Excellent build up play from Grimsby Town. Digger sends in a left footed cross which falls onto the head of Coldicott. Super header from Coldicott smacks the bar, Terry Cooke comes flying in and sails the ball straight into the stand. Beresford takes his time in retrieving the ball from the stand containing Grimsby supporters. Grimsby Town to make a substitution here. It's going to be Steve Chettle coming on for Georges Santos. Beresford to resume play from the goal kick, plays a ball up-field trying to find Alan Moore. The ball doesn't reach him but is headed away by Groves. Coldicott picks it up on half way, controlled well. He picks out Cooke with a precise pass. What a good game Cooke and Coldicott are having. Cooke on the right wing plays the ball to Mansaram who gives the ball back to Cooke. Great play from Grimsby Town, the crowd are really getting behind Grimsby. Cooke travels further with the ball. There is only ‘Digger' Soames in the box. Cooke decides to shoot himself. It's a real pile driver of a shot that Beresford can only tip behind for a corner. The crowd are buzzing with excitement. Campbell to take the corner for Grimsby. There are six in the area for Grimsby including Cooke, Mansaram and Chettle. The ball is driven into the area to Cooke who stumbles under a challenge from Cox, Burnley manage to clear the ball. The referee blows his whistle, the crowd are astonished to hear the whistle, and the players are totally astounded to hear it. The referee points to the penalty spot, he's awarded a penalty to Grimsby Town, possibly for the slight challenge on Cooke, we'll never know. Cooke has got up and is ready to take the penalty himself. He puts the ball on the spot, this to make it two-one. The crowd are trying their best to put off the Burnley keeper. It's Cooke against Beresford. Cooke takes a run up and belts the ball. GOAL. Grimsby Town are back into this game thanks to a dubious decision by the referee. At Blundell Park, Cleethorpes its Grimsby Town One, Burnley Two. Burnley are absolutely furious with the decision but ‘The show must go on'. Stan Ternant, the Burnley manager, is angry at the officials, he's having a right go at the fourth official. The referee sees it. He's walking over. He's talking to the official. He's going over to Stan. The referee has sent him away from the dugout. I presume that is for the abuse he was giving the fourth official. He will certainly be complaining about these officials to the F. A. Burnley to resume play from the centre circle. Papadopoulos plays the ball back to back who spots Grant running down the left touchline. Brilliant ball straight to the feet of Grant who loses out to McDermott. McDermott plays a long cross-field ball to Campbell who turns well. Grimsby look like they are going to make a substitution, Chris Thompson is warming up on the touchline. Groves receives the ball at half way and takes his time before playing a ball back to Santos. Santos to Gallimore on this left touchline. Thompson is ready to come on when the ball goes out of play. Gallimore hits a long ball up to Cooke who mis-controls and the ball rolls over the line for a Burnley throw-in. It's going to be a double substitution for Grimsby Town. The electronic board goes up, it's going to be 14 Chris Thompson for 20 David Soames and 12 Jonathan Rowan replacing 2 John McDermott. Burnley to take the throw-in with Branch. Gnohere receives the ball who gives it to Cox. Up-field straight to Paul Cook. Cook runs with the ball, trying to take on the Grimsby defence by himself. He's past Groves, skips past the challenge from Ford and rides the challenge from Santos. Only Coyne to beat. Cook tries to slide the ball underneath Coyne. He's done that successfully. Coyne got a touch, the ball is rolling towards the line, Santos is trying to get back. What a brilliant clearance off the line from Santos. Grimsby are straight on the attack with Cooke on the ball. Cooke hits a ball up-field to Mansaram. Great touch to control the ball. Mansaram brings the ball out left, he's got support from the packed Grimsby midfield. He's turned brilliantly, he's going back to where he started. He turns well again and strikes a left footed shot. GOAL, wow what a superb shot straight past the helpless Beresford. There was nothing the goal keeper could do there. After 88 minutes, it's Grimsby Town 2 Burnley 2. Burnley are devastated by that, that they decide to make an attacking substitution. Dimitrios Papadopoulos is coming off to be replaced by Gordon Armstrong. The fourth official holds up the board and indicates two minutes added time. The ninety minutes are up, Grimsby are under a lot of pressure from the Burnley attack. The referee blows his whistle for full time, it's finished Grimsby Town 2 Burnley 2.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Jourmal of Asian Pacific Communication Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Jourmal of Asian Pacific Communication - Essay Example How did the authors go about investigating the issue? The research questions were used to investigate the issues of study such as whether there are any significant differences in communication styles used by native speakers of American English and native speakers of East Asian languages in homogeneous groups and whether East Asian speakers of similar language proficiency exhibit the same communication patterns in heterogeneous and homogenous teams. In order to analyze the situation, various categories such as turns, words, overlaps, back channels and latching were used. What were the main findings? It was found that when working in homogenous groups, both cultural groups exhibits similar interaction and their participation was very similar. East Asians acquire shorter turns and Americans took longer turns; in addition, East Asians showed higher rates of latching compared to Americans. Make at least five (5) suggestions as to how this article might be improved. The article uses only a few variables to discuss the interactive approach, more variables can be used to provide a deep discussion on the communicative patterns. Additional study is needed to explore the cultural differences affecting the performance of groups. This study uses only a small sample data; a larger data sample would provide stronger results. If the article emphasis the decision making of students group in decision making, it will be more easily understandable for this study. Further study is needed to argue the reason of silencing result of non native speakers of mixed groups. Section-2- Self Reflection Assessment: Introduction: We had a MMH299 unit to explain about Business Communication. The objective of this unit is to expand knowledge of the nature of business communication, and provide the necessary tools and skills to help in improving the productivity in an organization. With participation in the unit, it was a completely different experience for me to gain knowledge about various aspe cts of business communication. It was, in fact, exciting to see that how an easy thing like communication was not simple at all as I have learned before. Communication is the part and parcel of our life. But I was ignorant of the wide areas of business communication. I have learned the theories of business communication through this unit. Business communication is very essential in an organization to improve the productivity and achieve the objectives. Tasks: We have undertaken various tasks on weekly in order to get a better overview of the topic. The task included explaining about the theory and History of Business Communication, workshop on Meetings Online and Technology, Teamwork, Oral and online presentations, Writing reports, Dealing with Conflict and Negotiation, providing a view on behavioral Protocols and Ethical Communication, Intercultural communication, emotion, Communication and Gender issues. Learning activities: The tasks started with the description of the theory and history of business communication. I have learned that the most significant thing in communication is to hear what is not being told. Communication theories were originated in twentieth century. Communication â€Å"is the very means by which we produce our personal relationships and professional experiences†

Friday, September 27, 2019

Business Communication Writing Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Business Communication Writing - Assignment Example It is of the essence for one to record whichever thoughts we have on these steps such that by the time you start working on the writing, you would not have forgotten your thoughts on these steps. It might look like cutting out some steps to make one of them actually more efficient and saving time. However, contrary to this belief, the first few steps are the most crucial since they give a writer a clear frame of mind of what you are about to say. Â  Planning messages saves time and improves efficiency, though some writers argue that it is all a waste of time since the plans are inevitably changed. Your answer to this argument is indeed correct since first and foremost planning helps the writer to know what to say in the write-up. Secondly, planning makes the actual writing of any paper much faster and easier since one can better allow the time to take for each step of the writing process. Lastly, through planning, the time saved in writing can be used to complete the documents by revising or proofreading.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Augmentation of our natural abilities using technology Case Study

Augmentation of our natural abilities using technology - Case Study Example Jumping stilts were invented and patented by a German aerospace engineer known as Alexander Boeck, who came up with the invention after studying the movement and structure of the kangaroo. The question that we seek to answer is whether jumping stilts are the ideal bionics that will enhance the historical wish of man to lift him from the ground, to some it can be said to be a craze but the possibilities that this bionic holds, is deemed to be phenomenon . It should be noted that stilts have been in existence in various human societies for a couple of centuries including African, Aboriginal and Chinese societies. The good thing is that using technology current generation can use jumping stilts in a way their ancestors never deemed possible. The feats that can be achieved using jumping stilts are taunted to be unimaginable in various aspects of human life. The device uses the concept of enhancing mans Achilles tendons by reducing friction at the knee joint and promoting balance on the f eet. Jumping stilts open possibilities of what augmented human beings can be able to do including jumping and running. The many uses at the moment of jumping stilts are not limited to the following artistic expression, form of exercise which tones the whole body unlike conventional exercise routines and also is a sport to enthusiasts. The fields that will greatly benefit from stilts are athletics and exercise; this is because it takes training of performers to the next level. It is deemed to be the next big thing in the fitness industry because it provides full body workout once, something not possible with traditional exercise regimes. Robotics which is a craze in the science community will benefit from this device because they can enhance human legs to make them look like robotic animals. The phenomenal recognition of this wearable human enhancement has lead to increased recognition in the international arena such that it was used during the closing ceremony of the 2008 Beijing Ol ympic in China. Man is essentially using the feat which can be achieved by the fastest animals on the planet such as ostriches and kangaroos. The main obstacle facing its distribution is perception and also coming up with a common name. This laboratory report will work on the above considerations to prove the hypothesis and assumptions which are stated below. The adrenalin of putting the stilts on, and running or jumping with them is reported by users to be like no other, which enhances locomotion greatly. The hypothesis and assumptions will rely on the observations and experiment to persuade the scientific community that they are true. 1) Hypothesis. This is the main wearable enhancement that enables people to jump very high and run very fast, compared to when they do that on foot. Theses should however not be confused with the prosthetics worn by disabled people who participate in the Paralympics. The questions which we seek to answer is whether these bionic enhancement can enable man to get off the ground and be the fastest mammal on the earth and whether this would open possibilities for man in various fields which otherwise not be possible if we only used our natural limbs without augmentation. Already such possibilities are being tested to be used by the military, an aspect who knows which could change warfare. The ultimate aim is for this argument to be proved to be a theory by other experimenters. This

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Perception and Learning Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Perception and Learning - Dissertation Example Here in the following case study the Vice president of marketing at Hy Dairies Inc, Gilman have the believe that his own way of working as marketing research co-ordinator can also boost the career of his brand manager Rochelle Beauport. In spite of very good track record in the brand management the vice president never asked her about her career interest rather directly told her to join research team as technical support position. These give rise to the employee dissatisfaction and anxiety amongst the employees. Gilman should have identified the social identity of his employees and their likings to enhance their personality (Simply psychology, n.d.). Question 2 What can organisations do to minimise misperceptions in these types of situations? In minimising this kind of situations the vice president of Hy dairies Gilman should give proper attention towards active listening process. Gilman should have discussed with Rochelle about her points and should understand what she wants to do i n her future. Speaking directly to the listener before taking any decision can help to minimise misperception to great extent. Though this type of culture is not considered appropriate in many cases but if done it can be very effective. Lastly one should understand the reason for a particular decision and should clear the points why the particular decision was taken against her. Reference Changing Minds, (2011).

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Program for Homeless Alcoholics Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Program for Homeless Alcoholics - Research Paper Example One of the challenges the alcoholics face in the rehabilitation program is dealing with their own opinion of self- hesitation. Patients suffering from alcoholism addiction are meant to undergo therapeutic treatment within a program. They have several problems like handling life without reliance on the drugs that maintain them in addiction. Dipping onward in spite of these self- uncertainties are often the primary step in the way to a victorious recovery (Fineout-Overholt & Schultz, 2005). Besides being distrustful of themselves, there are frequently a few other individuals in the vicinity of the rehabilitation program who believe they will by no means conquer the challenges facing them. This is mainly true when the long-suffering individual is going in the course of rehab to regulate to life devoid of any limbs. This doubt often leads them back to alcoholism (Balas, & Boren, 2000). The sluggish process that is prevalent in affecting and physician treatment can over and over again be exasperating for therapy patients. This is predominantly factual when the patient is turning out to be worse instead of getting better during therapy. While in the process of a delay, it is problematical to remember that it is not extraordinary for alcoholic patients to obtain a small number of steps frontward only to go reverse to old habits. During these times when growth is sluggish or non- current, the patients have to over and over again appear away from the conditions of today and concentrate more on somewhere he or she needs to subsist for a number of months from the current day. From these challenges there is need to develop a plan for homeless alcoholics to go to in house rehab, learn a skill to help them get a job and at the end of the program assist them in finding a job and a place to live independently. Theoretical Framework The research will adapt the evidence-based put into practice models. These models have been developed to assist nurses move proof into effect (Dear holt 2008). The utilization of these models brings out a prearranged method to evidence-based put into practice, prevents unfinished implementation, and can make the most of use of treatment time and assets. There is no model of evidence-based put into practice is contemporary and can meet the requirements of all nursing environment (Feussner, & Demakis 2000). This proposal presents a methodical procedure that can be utilized by institutions to choose an evidence-based put into practice model that best tackles the requirements of a program. Rosswurm and Larrabee’s Model for Evidence-Based Practice Change Rosswurm and Larrabee (1999), from the University of West Virginia, urbanized a 6-step model to make possible a shift from conventional and perception -driven practice to implement evidence- based dynamics into practice (Figure 1.1). The model was experienced in the sensitive care experimental setting, but the writers imagine it is flexible to most important care surroundings . Below are the six steps of this model (Balas, & Boren, 2000). 1. Assess the necessitate for change in put into practice by comparing interior data with outside data 2. Association of the problem with procedures and products which has normal interventions, if potential 3. Combine the best proof (investigates and related evidence) 4. Intend a transform in put into pract

Monday, September 23, 2019

Human Error by James Reason Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Human Error by James Reason - Essay Example Referencing around eighty books, 'Human Error' today is cited itself by more than a hundred works by authors like A. Hale, John R. Wilson and E. J. Lovesay etc. The book draws a schism of three parts where the first portion comprising of the first two chapters inoculate the fundamental ideas, research traditions and brings an account of background studies pertaining to errors. The middle part from chapter three to five elucidates the error mechanisms and the common reasons behind a wide range of errors. The final section comprising of the remaining chapters throws light on the result of errors that range from their detection, unintentional contributions to them and the curative steps towards them. As clear from the title, the first chapter of the book elucidates the nature of errors, draws a classification of various types of errors and the strategies that lead to their detection. According to Reason the two major types of errors are similarity-matching and frequency-bias. The second chapter of the book traces back the significant studies done in the area human error which Reason classifies into natural science approach and the engineering approach based on the practice of their research. These are the studies that form the foundation of Reason's Human Error. I Performance Levels and Error Types: In the third chapter, the author introduces a Generic error modelling system that facilitates the identification of three types of error types namely; skill based slips and lapses, rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. The model is rather a combination of ideas on cognitive theories from Rasmussen, Rouse, Anderson, and the Holland, Holyoak, Nisbett, and Thagard. Cognitive Underspecification and Error Forms: "When cognitive operations are underspecified, they tend to default to contextually appropriate, high-frequency responses." 2 The fourth chapter harps around the topic of cognitive under-specification. The author also explains the two factors (Similarity and Frequency) on the basis of which the errors are classified. A Design for a Fallible Machine: The fifth chapter of the book proposes the concept of fallible machine - an information machine that would work precisely for most of the time but would also produce errors at times. The purpose behind such a machine was to create an experimental model that would resemble the behaviours of humans and their tendency towards making the errors. The Detection of Errors: This chapter pertains to the concepts of error detection and their correction. While talking about correction, the author explains two types of error correction mechanisms, namely the low level correction mechanism and the high level correction mechanism of which the former is proposed to work better than the latter. Latent Errors and Systems Disasters: In this chapter the author draws a schism in the types of errors in terms of the accidental contribution to their occurence. Here the two types of errors are Active Errors and Latent

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Rides Control Essay Example for Free

Rides Control Essay To establish a firm background for all these systems an efficient network had to be installed in order to ensure a fast and comprehensive method of linking all those users. The FDDI network on a token ring topology is used as our backbone (FDDI stands for Fibre-Distributed Data Interface) and this gives us the requirements we need for speed, distance and capacity. The nature of our business and the way the Park is spread over a large area, necessitates our using several methods of communication. E-mail is used increasingly: our current software is Microsoft exchange server 5. 5 and Outlook 98. It should help to cut down considerably on memos, forms, notice board information and bulky reports. This has the dual effect of saving paper, ink and printing costs and conserves environmental resources. E-mail address and website: www. thorpepark. co. uk. E-mail goes directly to The Tussauds Group Head Office, and via networks from there, to the other attractions in The Tussauds Group using an ISDN link (Integrated Services Digital Network). The main telephone switchboard is also ISDN. Voicemail is used to prevent unanswered calls, and an automated attendant kicks in on the rare occasion when our receptionists are unable to answer all the lines, and it automatically operates after office hours. Through a desktop interface we can monitor calls. This is an invaluable tool for analysis of calls, determining our busiest times of day and helping us to plan our casting resources accordingly. Some cast use mobile phones, particularly those whose work takes them away from the office. Nearly all our cast rely on radios to keep in touch with each other when they are spread about the Park which enables cast to be diverted to specific areas wherever and whenever necessary. Cast can relay information about queue lines on rides and alert security cast to any emergency situation. There are 8 channels all of which can contact, and be contacted by, the Control Room. If a Park-wide emergency situation should arise, cast in the control room can broadcast simultaneously to every radio holder in the Park. The main security system is CCTV (Closed Circuit Television) which uses infra red cameras throughout the Park, linked to 24 hour video recorders. Black and white and colour monitors in the Control Room can pan and zoom to any area. In this way cast response to a particular incident can be co-ordinated cast response to a particular problem. Our own security cast are on site 24 hours a day. In merchandising, sophisticated till systems are in use in all the shops and food outlets. EPOS (Electronic Point of Sale) is used for our products with barcode scanning facilities for the whole range of goods on sale. This is linked to the central stock control to monitor the movement of all our merchandise and food items from both our warehouses. This is essential for maintaining sell-by dates and to forecast sales accurately. EFTOS (Electronic Fund Transfer Point of Sale) is the system through which credit and switch cards are debited immediately and automatically through the national banking system. Any credit or switch cards used in the shops are attached to a polling machine. This is essentially a communications technique which determines when a terminal is ready to send data the banks own computer will check all its attached terminals on a regular basis. All of the ride attractions have computer control systems that are fed by mechanical levers and optical sensors. The rides, that are all mechanical, fall into three categories water, motor and track. The computer, through the use of optical sensors, detects the locking of safety bars and the speed and number of carriages passing. This information enables the operator to dictate how fast and how often the ride runs. Each ride has a very comprehensive range of fail-safe devices that are mechanical or electrical. There is video surveillance on each ride cameras are trained on the tracks and on the carriages. This helps us to detect any faults or potential problems. Software programmes are applications that are bought in from major manufacturers such as Microsoft, Oracle (database), Computer Associate (backup) and Network Associate (anti-virus). These can be specifically suited to a particular business function, such as Finance packages, which include wages and payroll systems, spreadsheets, etc. Other more sophisticated software, such as AutoCAD, may be necessary for our Engineers and the production team for our Entertainments Department. We primarily use Microsoft Office 97, which contains a comprehensive range of applications such as Word, Excel, Outlook, Access, PowerPoint. It is possible to customise our own databases for instance, we have one specifically written for our Guest Services Department, Charter 2000. This logs comments made by guests, produces a personalised reply, and collates information so that it can be reproduced in report form using a programme called Business Systems. It is currently used at Thorpe Park and Chessington with a planned introduction to the other Tussauds Group attractions in 2001. This information is confidential between the guest and the company. We are registered under the Data Protection Act to declare any information we may hold. The Tussauds Group Marketing Database on the other hand is common information shared by every attraction in the company. It helps us gather marketing information in order to improve our service. There is an electronic booking service for groups so that they can arrange their visit and tickets by phone, with a credit card. Individuals can make advanced bookings. This helps us to build up a profile of our guests and their requirements. The sales and admission system is called Omni Ticket Network. OTN have supplied all the hardware apart from the hard drives, VDU screens and key boards, which are standard hardware made by Compaq. The software used is called Overview. The Attractions General Database (AGD) has been designed by Syntegra, the Systems Integration Business of BT and is a component of the Sales and Admissions system. Its primary purpose is to provide a data repository for Sales, guests and admissions data and to provide tools to allow analysis of this imported data. A secondary function is to facilitate the exchange systems, and General Marketing Database (GMD), the external guest contact system. AGD configures all the information taken from Overview (information collected through Admissions on the tills each day) and turns it into reports for Finance and Marketing.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

The Necessity of ObamaCare in the United States Essay Example for Free

The Necessity of ObamaCare in the United States Essay The United States is heavily watched around the world in terms of politics or any other action as it is one of the leading countries of the world. Recently, the United States caught the eye of the world in its recent debate of the health care reform. Most commonly referred to as â€Å"ObamaCare† the official name is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) or for short, the Affordable Care Act (ACA). President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010 signed the Affordability Care Act into law to reform the health care industry and it was later upheld by the supreme court on June 28th, 2012. â€Å"The goal of ObamaCare is to give more Americans access to affordable, quality health insurance, and to reduce the growth in health care spending in the U. S. † (ObamaCare Facts n. d). The debate is centred around the Republican Partys actions of trying to stop the implementation of this law. However, I believe the Republican Party has no right to prevent the implementation of the health care reform in the United States as it undermines â€Å"the three elements of democracy – liberty, equality and solidarity† (Brodie,Rein;Smith p. 36). It does this as it is withholding affordable healthcare of the expansion of Medicaid and Medicare and offering cost assistance through healthcare insurance marketplaces to around 44 million Americans who are unable to get health insurance with the majority of uninsured being poor working families and those who simply cannot afford health insurance. Therefore, going against democracys free form of always including those not yet involved (Brodie,ReinSmith p. 38) which therefore directly mocks the idea of solidarity and its sense of belonging or acceptance. In order to fully grasp the concept of the argument a few key terms needs to be defined. â€Å"Democracy is any form of government in which the rules of society are decided by the people who will be bound by them† (Brodie,ReinSmith p. 32). Equality is a term conveying the idea that all citizens should have the same access to the political sphere, the rule of and social entitlements. Solidarity is a term that refers to a kind of membership in the political community, and feelings of belonging associated with the acceptance by that community. The healthcare reform gives us a chance to rethink equality via solidarity where it is an equality of opportunity instead of equality of chance where everyone is granted the opportunity and are able to have health insurance via the Affordable Care Act. The sense of solidarity is therefore highlighted in the benefits of ObamaCare. The benefits of ObamaCare definitely outweigh the cons without a doubt. Before the law you could be denied coverage or treatment because you had been sick in the past, be charged more because you were a woman, be dropped mid-treatment for making a simple mistake on your application, and had little or no way to fight insurance company appeals. Today all Americans have access to a large number of unprecedented new benefits, rights and protections. The major ones outlined by the healthcare reform are there are many of uninsured persons who will get access to affordable quality health insurance through the marketplace, thus 82% of uninsured adults will qualify for free or low cost insurance. Insurance companies are not allowed to dismiss you when you are sick or if you make a mistake on your application. Neither can you be denied coverage or charged more for pre-existing conditions such as being sick. Another benefit is that young adults are able to stay on their parents plan until the age of 26. Also there is better care and protections for seniors and â€Å"essential health benefits like emergency care, hospitalization,prescription drugs, and maternity and newborn care must be included on all non-grandfathered plans at no out-of-pocket limit† (ObamaCare Facts n. d). Additionally, you cannot be charged more based on health or gender. ObamaCare helps to curb the growth in healthcare spending with reforms to the health industry to cut wasteful spending. Seeing all of these benefits, it shows the irrationality of Republicans refusal of the healthcare reform as these provisions encompass solidarity in terms of those who were unable to have health insurance will be able to which brings out the equality of opportunity and linking to solidarity, are now able to have a sense of membership into the political and healthcare community as they are now able to enjoy the benefits of healthcare as the majority did before. After all, everyone deserves the right to healthcare. However, the Republicans knowing what the Affordability Act entailed did as much as they could to refute it and thus caused the United States to become the focus of the world because of the government shutdown due to their actions. One of the Republicans many attempts to refute ObamaCare ended up in a shutdown of the United States government beginning from October 1st, 2013 and it lasted up to 2 weeks. It was time for the spending bills to be passed and the Republicans insisted any new spending bill include provisions to hinder ObamaCare. They therefore, passed two spending bill amendments, one that would delay ObamaCare for a year and one that would repeal the ObamaCares medical device tax. However, the health care law isnt directly tied to funding the government, but its being used as a bargaining chip. The Senate rejected this proposal, which prompted the House to approve another spending plan that would remove the Obamacare individual mandate. The Senate rejected that as well thus resulting in the government shutdown. It should be noted that , â€Å"democracy privileges solidarity over ego† (Brodie,Rein;Smith p. 41) and the Republicans actions stemmed from their ego thus there is no justification for their actions. Furthermore, the article â€Å" Health Reform 2010: The Missing Philosophical Premises in the Long- Running Health Care Debate† by Theodore R. Marmor, puts forth a comparison of the healthcare systems of Germany, Canada, England, Japan, and France to the United States. â€Å"Each, as distinct from the United States, has created a universal health care program fundamentally based on the idea that medical care is a merit, not a market good. The equal access standard does not, of course, mean ideal practice, but care is more equally distributed as a result† (Marmor p. 569). This is now what ObamaCare seeks to do by imposing on the health care system that is seen to be run by private-profit companies, whose bottom line is money and not health. This idea of medical care being a â€Å"merit† and having more equally distributed care are two factors entailed in ObamaCare. This is where the elements of democracy freedom, equality and solidarity once again come into play. Healthcare becoming more equally distributed directly deals with equality which is directly linked to solidarity and the sense of belonging or acceptance as those previously without healthcare are now in the mix. Consequently, I have shown that the Republicans would like to see ObamaCare repealed. If it is repealed then millions of Americans will be without proper health coverage, and insurance companies will continue to be able to deny coverage for pre-existing conditions. Without healthcare reform America will continue to suffer the consequences of a health care system controlled by private for-profit companies, whose bottom line is money and not health. Debates in the US press detract from the fact that healthcare is about shared humanity and solidarity, not ideology. The Republicans actions are not justified as it is seen to be stemmed from ego while the Affordability Care Act with its many benefits encompass the idea of the elements of democracy – freedom, equality and solidarity.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Film Review King Arthur

Film Review King Arthur Film Review King Arthur The film I will be reviewing is called King Arthur. King Arthur is from the action epic genre and is a brilliant well put together film which will help many audiences in many ways and would be bound to sell. I will also include a historical context showing how King Arthur was related to the Roman invasion of Britain and how it also affected the characters involved. The maker of the film is Jerry Bruckheimer. The actors that star in the film are Clive Owen as king Arthur, Keira Knightley as Guinevere, Ray Winstone as Bors, Ioan Gruffudd as Lancelot Stellan Skarsgà ¥rd, Stephen Dillane. Clive Owen has a reputation for providing top class films. Back in 1990, he performed as the wisecracking, sharp-suited wheeler-dealer Stephen Crane in the hit show Chancer; he was described as â€Å"the hottest thing on TV†. Keira Knightley also has a reputation for providing top films such as her earliest Bend It like Beckham to in 2003 Pirates of the Caribbean. After performing in those still only 18 she also preformed in Love Actually and then continued Pirates of the Caribbean. From this we can see that all the actors and actresses are excellent and great performers so therefore my expectations only followed by their reputation. The film is all about King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. It came out in 2004 and lasts for 140 minutes. There is a lot of history of this film as King Arthur is a legend. Similar to Robin Hood King Arthur has many different versions such as an older version and this newer version. In my opinion the film is a great one attracting a wide audience of historians, people with an interest in King Arthur and action packed viewers. King Arthur is believed by some as a myth but most believe he was a real king and that he really did make England proud. This film is set around 409 A.D. This time was when the Roman Empire controlled most of Britain. King Arthur, who is partly Roman and an ally to Rome, was mainly British and loved his country that every battle in this film he would fight would be for him and his knights of the round tables freedom. As an agreement all these British villages had to send their children and some adults to fight for Rome. Similar to subscription and they had to serve a certain amount of time where they would earn their freedom. Later on after a few years in around 410 A.D the Roman invasion had ended because Rome had redrawn from Britain due to other opposing enemies and also due to the attack of the Saxons and Scots. The film begins with a well worded description of the legend of King Arthur which reads â€Å"Historians agree that the classical 15th Century King Arthur and his knight’s rose from a similar individual who lived in a period often called the Dark Ages†. The picture comes awake with a Roman army on horseback often called the â€Å"Praetorian† an elite roman horseback army. The beginning of the film is very important because it sets the scene to what the whole film is about which in this case is about the Roman Britain Empire and its connection with King Arthur. We see at the start a map which shows how far the Roman Empire extended which was from Saudi Arabia to Britain and this is a key point in understanding why Rome called for King Arthur and his knights to carry out so many missions. The reason being that Rome was not satisfied with their land they kept on wanting more and more so leaders like King Arthur were sent on missions to keep the Empire strong. This s hows the outline of the film and the reason as to what the film is about. One key point that we notice in the film is that Lancelot who is one of Arthur’s knights is the narrator and speaks in 1st person â€Å"I was such a son† he said when at the start the roman army came to recruit him on the grounds similar to conscription. So he was off to fight for Rome. Then the scene changes and we see King Arthur as a young boy who is presented as a bright future leader both wealthy and important as we can tell by his freedom of movement. Arthur sees the young knights including Lancelot on horseback and asks who they are and he is told they may someday be his knights little does he know that one day they will. This is a use of dramatic irony as we know it is to happen by the role of Lancelot as one of his knights but the character himself is unaware. After this scene there is a gap which says â€Å"15 years later† then they are all shown as grown men and we notice that there conscription was supposed to be for 15 years therefore the director lives the audience to find this out for themselves. Then we see the characters for the first time as men and their first mission is to protect the bishop from the forest Woads who Merlin (an old friend of Arthur’s) leads. The Woads attack some Roman troops so Arthur and his knights pace to the scene and upon arrival witness the deaths of these Roman soldiers. The Knights take up their swords and fight off the Woads for now as Merlin looks on from the forest. After the attack the Bishop appears dead with an arrow straight through his head however Arthur spots it is not the bishop but a fake. The real Bishop appears and they talk about the great Samaritan Knights that Arthur leads. After they arrive at the castle where all the knights expect their freedom from the subscription that they are bound to. However the Bishop revels that the pope has one more mission for them and all of the knights including King Arthur disapprove after 15 long years of fighting however the mission is to rescue the pope’s favourite godchild and pupil so therefore on their last day of subscription they must go on this mission. As to be expected all the Knights don’t want to go but after a talk from King Arthur unwillingly for Arthur they approve. So after the disapproval of the mission the scene changes and we see who the knights will come up against. Saxons from the north. They were very strong at the time and the opposition to the Romans. When Rome left in 410 A.D it was the Saxons that took over England. We then see the Saxons killing innocent women. This demonstrates the brutality of the Saxons. Then the Knights get on their horseback and ride off towards their mission. They cut through the forest where they are being tracked by Merlin’s knights. Aware of the movement of the Saxons Merlin traps Arthur and the Knights in the forest and they agree to fight the Saxons together. After reaching their mission point they find Alecto the godchild of the pope. Arthur finds a secret door blocked up and his Knight uses his axe to break it down. Inside they find injured Woad. The Woad is called Guinevere who by legend is the eventually the wife of King Arthur therefore this is an important step because this is the entrance of a main character played by Keira Knightley. After a disagreement with the townsman leader the father of Alecto the knights take off away from the Saxons. The Saxons continue to get closer and closer. Then they reach the ice and they finally intercept with the Saxons. Ready and prepared to fight the main scene unfolds. The odds start at 7 Samaritan knights against 200 Saxons. The fight starts with the 7 using their long bows to cut off the wings of the 200 it forces them to stay together putting more weight on the ice eventually the ice begins to break however their out of range and the ice hasn’t broken. Dagenot one of the knights runs forward with his axe and breaks the ice covered by the other 6 with their longbows. Unfortunately he is shot with arrows 3 times and dies however their mission is a success in one way but a loss in another. The next scene begins back at the castle where they are greeted by the Bishop who is happy to see Alecto. They are given their freedom but Bors and all the others are unhappy due to the loss of Daganot. They buried Daganot and looked on in a sad manner. Then we see the final scene which is where the Saxons have risen to Hadrian’s Wall and are ready to attack the Emperor and the knights. However the Romans are leaving and the knights are free but King Arthur says he must stay and fight. None of the knights stay but when they see the bravery of Arthur on his own they race to back up. Then the first Saxon army attack behind the castle gates therefore the Saxon leader can’t see who is winning and only a few of his army come out and they believe there was only six knights however the Woads have joined and they all worked together and Arthur was there leader. The final Saxon army attacked and lost to King Arthur in a great battle and casualties were lost such as Bors and Lancelot which who were two of Arthur’s Samaritan knights. Also the narrator was Lancelot so we notice it is told by a character that later dies this is a technique to have a greater influence of understanding the times of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. The battle ends and Arthur wins and they bury the dead and Lancelot’s request to be cremated takes place. The film ends as Guinevere and Arthur get married and Britain is in safe hands. My opinions of the movie are that it is a good exciting film. The film is entertaining and the storyline keeps the audience in suspense. Another good opinion of the film is that the historical context makes the audience want to see the film because they want to know more about Roman British Empire so they are more likely to see the film. One part I like is where at the start the knights defeat the Woads even though there are only a few knights. I like this part because it makes the knights look strong and therefore impresses me as the audience. Another part I liked is when Daganot takes his axe and destroys the ice so that the Saxons can’t cross the line. However I found this sad because Daganot gets killed in this part of the film. Another action packed part is the last scene where there is a big battle. This scene is action packed and therefore entertaining in the film. Compared to films like Gladiator this film is better because it gives a more historical outlook on the fil m. Therefore I think it is more successful and more entertaining. I think in the film that when the character of Lancelot died it was disappointing because historians know that he was a great warrior therefore the way he died was unexpected and I believe it was better to keep him alive. Therefore if I was directing the film I would have not killed off Lancelot however I like the way that the character of Daganot was killed because he was made to look like a hero. The character I am critical of is Guinevere because in the story of King Arthur she was supposed to be a high class lady from a good family however in this story she is presented as Woad like a rebel whom I think is unrealistic and completely changes the character. Therefore I dislike the character. The parts which are successful are the opening scene where the few knights fight many Woads. This is successful because it sets the tone of the film and lets the audience know how skilled the knights are and how they grew up to become knights. Another part which is successful is where Daganot smashes open the door with an axe. This is successful because it allows the audience to see how strong the knights are again and also get the audience more involved to see what is inside because the breaking down of the door is like footsteps of a massive army because the audience wants to see what will happen next. Therefore in both ways it is successful. In conclusion I recommend the film and would give it 8 out of 10. The reasons for this are because it is a successful film in the way it attracts and entertains the audience such as the start where the knights fight many Woads. It is an interesting film where there is a great historical context such as the history and leadership of King Arthur himself and Roman Britain. The reason I would only give the film an 8 out of 10 is because there were parts I disliked such as that Lancelot got killed and that Guinevere was made to look different then the real story. Therefore in conclusion I would give the film an 8 out of 10 and recommend it to people as a good film because it has many good features and covers the historical part of King Arthur as well as the entertaining action packed fighting in the film therefore I recommend it.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Educational Philosophy :: Education Teaching Teachers Essays

Educational Philosophy If you do not make a difference, then what have you made? This question has guided me in my pursuit of life, not simply my pursuit of a career. Simply put, the point is that being an educator is so much more than recording grades or getting a student through school. When a person begins to become educated, then that person’s life has begun. It starts as soon as we come into this world and continues throughout adulthood until we take our last breath. Education comes in all forms and from different forces. People can be influenced in several different ways, whether it was by friends on the streets or criminals made famous by the media, or a teacher who took the time to care. In each of those cases, an educational force of some sort got through to them. I want to teach. I want to guide. I want to be a role model. Most importantly, I want to make a difference. Looking back at my high school days, the period in my life when I had no clue of what path I wanted to follow, I can recognize the direction that began its pull on me. Before I understood that Socrates was more than a name, philosophy was slyly pulling me towards the path I am now on. I remember several times just standing and looking at my fellow students. I would stare and try to imagine 5, 10, 15 years down the road. What would become of them? Who would be a doctor, a lawyer, dentist, actor/actress? Then it hit me. Who would end up in jail? How many would grow up to become criminals and lead a life of crime? These thoughts seemingly came out of the blue and to this day I am not sure why I thought of such things at the time. Regardless of the reason, it was at that point that I began my journey towards becoming an educator, towards making a difference. I consider my philosophy to be an eclectic blend of several different theories and philosophies. But by far I like the Socratic method the best. Personally, I feel I am able to learn to my full potential by using it. Learning by asking questions makes sense to me and I think if I apply this method to my teaching goals that I will be successful.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Pierre Elliot Trudeau :: essays research papers

Pierre Elliot Trudeau   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Published in 1968, Federalism and the French Canadians is an ideological anthology featuring a series of essays written by Pierre Elliot Trudeau during his time spent with the Federal Liberal party of Canada. The emphasis of the book deals with the problems and conflicts facing the country during the Duplessis regime in Quebec. While Trudeau stresses his adamant convictions on Anglophone/Francophone relations and struggles for equality in a confederated land, he also elaborates on his own ideological views pertaining to Federalism and Nationalism. The reader is introduced to several essays that discuss Provincial legislature and conflict (Quebec and the Constitutional Problem, A Constitutional Declaration of Rights) while other compositions deal with impending and contemporary Federal predicaments (Federal Grants to Universities, The Practice and Theory of Federalism, Separatist Counter-Revolutionaries). Throughout all these documented personal accounts and critiques, the reader learns that Trudeau is a sharp critic of contemporary Quebec nationalism and that his prime political conviction (or thesis) is sporadically reflected in each essay: Federalism is the only possible system of government that breeds and sustains equality in a multicultural country such as Canada.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Trudeau is fervent and stalwart in his opinions towards Federalism and its ramifications on Canadian citizenry. Born and raised in Quebec, he attended several prestigious institutions that educated him about the political spectrum of the country. After his time spent at the London School of Economics, Trudeau returned to Quebec at a time when the province was experiencing vast differences with its Federal overseer. The Union Nationale, a religious nationalist movement rooted deep in the heart of Quebec culture, had forced the Federal government to reconcile and mediate with them in order to avoid civil disorder or unrest. The Premier of Quebec at the time, Maurice Duplessis, found it almost impossible to appease the needs of each diverse interest group and faction rising within the province and ultimately buckled underneath the increasing pressure. Many Francophones believed that they were being discriminated and treated unfairly due to the British North American Act which failed to recognize the unique nature of the province in its list of provisions. Trudeau, with the aid of several colleagues, fought the imminent wave of social chaos in Quebec with anti-clerical and communist visions he obtained while in his adolescent years. However, as the nationalist movement gained momentum against the Provincial government, Trudeau came to the startling realization that Provincial autonomy would not solidify Quebec's future in the country (he believed that separatism would soon follow) and unless Duplessis could successfully negotiate (on the issue of a constitution) with the rest of Canada, the prospect of self-sovereignty for Quebec would transpire.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  His first essay (Quebec and the Constitutional Problem) explores

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Freytag’s Pyramid in A Rose for Emily

Though a non-linear narrative, Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily fits well into the dramatic structure outlined in Freytag’s Pyramid.   Exposition is centered around the death of the eponymous character, Emily Grierson, and details her history in the town of Jefferson.Moving backward in time, a deal between Emily and a former mayor, Colonel Sartoris, is discussed, in which Emily is remitted of all taxes due to a loan Emily’s father made to the town before his death.   This expository information allows the reader to form a more substantive picture of Emily before the narrative actually begins.Faulkner establishes the tone of the story as cryptic and elliptical.   Emily is someone who can only be known vaguely, through all that can be understood in a few incidents.   By failing to disclose too much about Emily, Faulkner lends her an air of mystery, thus heightening the reader’s interest in her character.The story then leaps back in time thirty years, when there was concern in Jefferson over a smell coming from Emily’s house.   This is the point of rising action, in which the narrative acquires tautness in conflict.   Now the narrative is propelled forward by the reader’s curiosity- what is causing this horrible smell?   All of this builds on the mystery surrounding Emily, she becomes not so much a woman as an apparition, a vague blur in the mind of the reader.As the narrative proceeds on it constantly moves backward in time, so that the climax occurs at the point furthest in the past.   Emily’s purchase of the arsenic precedes chronologically the events of the first, second, fourth, and fifth parts of the story.   A Rose for Emily inverts the traditional narrative structure in which a story generally drives toward some point in the future, delving into the past for its revelations.The purchase of the arsenic must be regarded as the story’s climax for it is the only instance in which Emily takes action within the narrative.   She resolves here to take that action, the fruits of which are revealed in the final part of the story when the skeleton of Homer Barron is found in her bedroom.Part four of the story represents falling action, as with the purchase of the arsenic the fate of Homer Barron has been settled.   That the arrival of Emily’s family, or â€Å"kin† as Faulkner refers to them, is merely brushed upon in the vaguest terms serves as evidence- the focus of the story is elsewhere.   All that is left here is for the story to unravel into the denouement, which comes of course with the discovery of her supposed husband’s corpse.Here, Faulkner pulls back the curtain and allows the reader to briefly glimpse some of the mystery behind Emily, and by simply suggesting at one perversion, he hints at a whole host of other strange activities.   Thus the story is concluded not by solving the mystery, but rather by increasing its lurid allure.In a sto ry, such as A Rose for Emily, which is as much about ambience as it is about creating drama, a small action can carry great weight.   Emily’s very presence, â€Å"dear, inescapable, impervious, tranquil, and perverse,† shocks the small town of Jefferson out of entropy and into the life of narrative.Thus, though the story is nominally propelled along by curiosity over a strange odor emanating from her house, it is Emily herself in the end that sustains the interest of the reader.   Though Freytag’s Pyramid is an excellent guide for distilling dramatic structure from an otherwise elusive narrative, its application is limited.   While the model corresponds to the purely dramatic elements of A Rose for Emily it cannot account for such complementary elements such as tone and style, which often facilitate drama just as much as a well-honed structure.Faulkner’s writing operates obliquely, touching points of interest and then just as quickly departing from them, leaving a slight fog about the people and places he evokes.   The use of Freytag’s Pyramid can help shine a light through this fog and offer one a greater insight into the nature of this mysterious piece, A Rose for Emily.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Managing People Essay

Introduction Hiring employees is a crucial task for any company, since every employee has a significant role within the firm. It is for this reason that the recruiter(s) must make the right choice while selecting the candidates and make sure that the future employee fits the best the job offer. In order to achieve this essential task, most companies use the selection interview which is a method that allows the recruiter or manager and the candidate to meet each other in order for the recruiter to evaluate the different candidate’s aspects. The selection interview method is the most frequently and extensively used approach for employment selection. However, despite its universality, it has raised numerous issues regarding its reliability especially the perceptual errors involved in the evaluation process. Throughout this document, the general selection interview’s benefits and issues will be mentioned in order to justify its popularity in comparison to other selection methods and identify its main pitfalls. The next part will aim to underline the relation between the selection interview and the eventual perceptual errors engendered during the recruitment. Finally, the legal implication of the selection interview will be discussed with regard to government policy and legislation. The selection interview Torrington and Hall (1995) describes the selection interview as a controlled conversation between one or many interviewers (managers) and one or many candidates with a purpose of: * Gathering information in order to predict how well the candidates would perform in the job offered, by measuring their abilities according to predetermined criteria established by the interviewers. * Facilitating the candidates’ decision-making by providing them with full details of the job opportunity they have applied for and information about the organisation. * Giving each candidate an equal opportunity or a fair hearing. Benefits In an interview, both parts meet each other. This allows a certain assessment to be made that can not be established in any other way (Torrington and Hall, 1995) such as the compatibility of two parts and their ability to work together, or the aptitude of someone to perform efficiently within a team without altering the whole group performance. Moreover the selection interview gives the candidates the ability to ask the interviewers any questions, such as information about the working hours, contract negotiation and so forth, in other words, it creates a public relation between both parts. In a second hand, it allows the recruiter to answer the candidates’ questions, and often to increase the perceived attractiveness of the job (Barclay, 1999) such as high salary etc†¦ In addition, the selection interview costs much less than the other methods such as testing and consultants use. Problems with using selection interview The major issues concerning the selection interview are related to its unreliability, invalidity and subjectivity (Torrington and Hall, 1995), although Webster (1964) conducted research that allowed identifying the following problems: * If the interviewers make their decision very early in the interview’s progress, they will deceive their final decision to the candidate. * Interviewers tend to find out the evidence that the candidate is unfavourable rather than favourable which can be called as overweighting negative information. * Most interviewers make their choice within the first three or four minutes of the interview, and then spent the rest of the time looking for evidence to confirm their first impression. * Primacy and Recency which is the tendency to recall the first few candidates and the last few. Therefore those in the middle of the queue become forgotten by the interviewers. * All the perceptual errors made in the interview selection, which include, stereotyping, Halo effect, discrimination and so forth. The next part will entirely be focused on those major issues with significant examples regarding the selection interview’s situation. The perceptual errors in the selection interview According to (Rollinson, 2002:110) who defines the perception as: â€Å"A mental process involving the selection, organisation, structuring and interpretation of information in order to make inferences and give meaning to the information† Perception plays a significant role in organisations, since it is used by individuals to make judgements, inferences and interpretations. Moreover it reflects how the people respond to what we do and what we say. However the differences in perception result for people seeing different things and inferring different meaning to same stimuli. The manner that people perceive things differs from one individual to another, therefore perception becomes a person’s reality and this can lead to misunderstandings (Mullins, 2001). The selection interview has raised several concerns regarding to its validity and reliability, those issues has been directly associated with the perceptual errors that may occur in a selection interview. The main areas where problems are encountered are: * Stereotyping: This is where people are regrouped in a same category according to various criteria such as their age, gender and race (Racial stereotyping). Stereotyping is also attributing a person with qualities supposed to be general of members of a particular group (Rollinson, 2002). In our selection interview context, a female candidate who applies for a building site engineer job would not get the offer because the interviewer might thing that all females are weak and fragile, even thought the candidate has got better knowledge and education than any male candidate. Another example could be a small computing business ran by young managers supported by young computer engineers. If an older candidate applies for an engineer job, the interviewers might discriminate he or she because of his or her age, in the fear that he/she would not fit into a young working team and that might affect the entire group’s overall effectiveness. A number of studies concluded that interviewers are more likely to give higher ratings on some traits to candidates who are more similar to themselves. For example a study demonstrated that females were generally given lower ratings than that of males by male interviewers ( * The Halo Effect: This is the assumption that a person has a certain characteristic, therefore he or she will have other characteristics (Rollinson, 2002). If a candidate has good communication skills. This does not mean that he or she will perform effectively as a manger or a group leader. It can happen that the panel member is impressed by one candidate’s criterion, and then the interviewers will give him/her positive evaluation for all other criteria regardless the performance. * Self-fulfilling prophecy: in our selection interview perspective, the Self-Fulfilling prophecy can be thought as the interviewer’s feelings regarding the interviewee. If this first person feels negatively about the candidate, he or she might ask more difficult questions in order to confirm his/her first assumptions. Therefore the candidate will feel uncomfortable when providing. This concern is also valid in the other sense which is the positive interviewer’s positive feeling and the straightforward questions to candidate in order to confirm it., The interviewers will basically tend to confirm their first impression whether it is positive or negative. This issue has a relevant impact on the validity and reliability of the selection interview in the sense that the interviewer’s first impression has a considerable effect on both candidates’ self-confidence and interviewers’ final result. * Attribution Theory: The attribution can be internal or external to a person, i.e. people attribute causes to other people’s behaviour. The internal attribution can be the person’s abilities; intentions etc. whereas the external attribution is the environment, luck etc. To simplify this theory throughout an example, a candidate is sweating during a selection interview, the deduction the interviewer might have is: Does this person sweat because the room is hot (External attribution) or because the candidate is nervous and struggle to answer the question (Internal attribution)? In fact there is a significant difference between those two factors that affects the interviewer’s perception and therefore his/her decision making. Government policy and legislation While organisations are totally free about how they choose their employee, legislation has a significant role in the recruitment and selection methods, especially in attempts to prevent different discriminations such as ethnic origin, sex, age and disability and to guaranty equal opportunities in recruitment (Beardwell and Holden, 2001). The first act was elaborated in 1974 and concerned the discrimination against people with criminal records (The Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974). This stipulates that after a certain time, the offender has the right to not reveal his or her sentence to any organisation, and should have the same recruitment chances that everybody else has. Followed by that, sex discrimination Act 1975 (including marital status) and race discrimination Act 1976 were introduced in the United Kingdom in order to protect people from direct and indirect discriminations. Since those acts, women and people from different origins have taken important part within organisations; however the evolution has been done relatively slowly according to national statistics (EOC Annual Report, 1998 and IDS 1997) which indicate the distribution of employment on the grounds of gender and race has slightly changed since those acts; for instance, people from ethnic minority are two and a half times more likely to be unemployed than white population. More recently, the Disability Discrimination Act (1995) was enforced in order to protect people with physical or mental impairment that affect them carrying out normal day-to-day activities and tasks. National statistics (Sly et al.; 1999) reveal that the unemployment rate for disabled people is almost twice that the non-disabled people for the working age. Conclusion We have seen that the reliability of the selection interview is affected by perceptual errors. However it this issue that can be overcome by using a structured interview, which makes the interviewer more involved in the job analysis. It is important to remember that the validity of the interview is improved by building a strong relationship between the content of the job and the structure of the selection method. The questions are relevant to the job requirements, and candidates are assessed according to a unique and specific scoring procedure in other words the same questions are asked to each candidate and rated according to pre-elaborated rating scales (Barclay, 1999). Moreover, the interviewers should have special trainings and practices in order to let them know the various pitfalls met in selection interview and overcome their weaknesses regarding the different aspects of the interview. Despite the existence of other recruitment methods such as testing, group selection, assessment centres, and consultant agencies which reveal to be more expensive and less accurate; the selection interview approach remains the most popular and flexible method used by organisations. Bibliography Barclay, J. (1999) â€Å"Employee Selection: A question of Structure†, Personnel Review, 28 (1/2): 134-151. Barclay, J. (1999) â€Å"Improving Selection Interview with Structure†, Personnel Review, 30 (1): 81-101. Beardwell, I. et al. (2001) Human Resource Management, Edinburgh: Prentice Hall. Mullins L. (2001) Management and Organisational Behaviour, UKPrentice Hall. Rollinson, R. (2002) Organisational Behaviour and Analysis-An Integrated Approach, Edinburgh: Prentice Hall. Thair, T. and Risdon, A. (1999). Women in the labour market: Results from the spring. 1998 labour force survey. Labour Market, March. The Office for National Statistics. Torrington, D. et al. (1995) Human Resource Management, Edinburgh: Prentice Hall. SHL Group plc (2000) 7/11/2003.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

1920s medicine Essay

The 1920s had many discoveries and innovations when it comes to medicine and science. Many of the things that we now take for granted were just getting their start during the 20s. Throughout the 1920s, new innovations in the medical and science field led to the discovery of vitamins and knowing more than ever before about the human body. New vital drugs and vaccines were created in this era that are hard to imagine not having today. The invention/discovery of the first anti-bacterial drugs saved more people from bacterial and viral infections than any previous time. Before the 1920s many medical conditions were untreatable or even deadly that we now consider to be easily cared for. Penicillin was one of the big medical discoveries of the 20s, the world’s first antibiotic. Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Flemming when he was examining mold and bacterial growth. This discovery opened up the possibilities for killing bacterial infections and without this many other medical innovations would not have occurred. Insulin was another major medical discovery in the 20s. Without this people with diebetes would not be able to properly treat their condition and thousands would die from a now treatable disorder. Various types of vitamins were also discovered in the 20s that help people today stay healthy. The medical field would not be what it is today if it wasn’t for the research put in by people of the 1920s. Millions of lives were saved due to the medical discoveries that were made in the 1920s. Without Penicillin, there may have never been any antibiotics created and a bacterial infection would mean a slow death. Insulin saves those with diebetes lives daily and without it diebetes would be considered a deadly condition. Life just wouldn’t be the same today if none of medical innovations of the 20s happened.

Saturday, September 14, 2019


McDonald’s Case Study ‘Beef Controversy’ Group 9: SaurabhJanwalkar -75 Dhvani Parekh- 89 Karan Savardekar – 103 Nikita Thakur – 113 SwapneelVaidya – 117 McDonald’s ‘Beef Fries’ Controversy McDonald's is the world's largest chain of hamburgerfast food restaurants, serving around 68 million customers daily in 119 countries. Headquartered in the United States, the company began in 1940 as a barbecue restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald. In 1948 they reorganized their business as a hamburger stand using production line principles.McDonald’s was started as a drive in restaurant by two brothers, Richard and Maurice McDonald, in California. The business was generating US $200000 per annum in 1940’s. They introduced a new concept called self service and designed their kitchen for mass production with assembly line procedures. Prices were kept low; speed, service and cleanliness became the success factor s for business. The original mascot of McDonald's was a man with a chef's hat on top of a hamburger shaped head whose name was â€Å"Speedee†. Speedee was eventually replaced with Ronald McDonald by 1967 when the company first filed a U.S. trademark on a clown shaped man having puffed out costume legs. As word of their success spread, franchises started showing interest. Ray Kroc finalized a deal with McDonald brothers in 1954. He established a franchising company the McDonald System Inc and appointed franchises. By the end of 1960’s Kroc had established over 400 franchising outlets. In 1965 McDonald’s went public. By the end of 1970’s, McDonald’s had over 5000 restaurants with sales exceeding three billion US dollars. By 1998, McDonald was operating 25,000 restaurants in 116 countries, serving more than 15 billion customers annually.However controversies started erupting one after the other for the company. The biggest controversy was the McDonald ’s Beef Fries controversy. The lawsuit which was filed in Seattle, US alleged that the company had, for a decade, duped vegetarian customers into eating French fries that contained beef extracts. This issue caused a great furoreamong the customers. Q1. Analyse the various allegations levelled against McDonald’s before the French fries controversy. What perpetual processes contributed to so much hostility and criticism despite McDonald’s being the number one fast food chain in the world?McDonald’s has a long history of lawsuits being filed against it. It had been frequently accused of resorting to unfair and unethical business practices. Some of the allegations are as follows. * In the late 1990’s the company had to settle over 700 incidents of scalding coffee burns. McDonalds kept the coffee at 185 ° F which is 20 ° F hotter than the standard temperature at other restaurants. An 81 year woman suffered third degree burns on her lower body that r equired skin grafts and hospitalization for a week. After McDonalds dismissed her request for compensation for medical bills she filed a lawsuit against the company. Another case was filed by a woman who was permanently scarred by an extremely hot pickle slice in a hamburger. * A customer who found the crushed head of a rat inside his hamburger also filed a lawsuit. * Nutrition: It was alleged that Mc Donald’s sell high-fat, low fibre food which can cause diseases such as cancer, heart problems, obesity and diabetes. But McDonalds refuted the allegation saying that scientific evidence has never been conclusive and that it had a right to sell junk food just like chocolate or ice-cream manufacturers did. Environment: It has also been accused of destroying tropical forests to facilitate cattle ranching. * Advertising: It was alleged that the heavy advertising by McDonalds was exerting a negative influence on children and exploiting them. * Employment: McDonalds is accused of off ering low wages and forcing local food outlets out of the business. Charges of discrimination, curtailing workers rights, understaffing, few breaks, illegal hours, poor safety conditions, crushing unionization attempts, kitchens flooded with sewage and selling contaminated food were also leveled against the company. Animals: McDonald’s slaughters hundreds of thousands of cows, chickens, lambs and other animals per year. * Expansion:It was alleged that McDonalds was creating a globalized system in which wealth is drained out of the local economies into the hands of a very few rich elite. This resulted in self sufficient and sustainable farming being replaced by cash crops and agribusiness under control of multinationals. * Free speech:It has also been alleged that McDonalds uses its clout to influence media and legal powers to intimidate people into not speaking out against the company.These are the various allegations leveled against the company. Q2. Discuss the French Fries controversy and critically comment on the company’s stand that it had never claimed the fries were vegetarian. Do you think the company handled the controversy effectively from the point of management of rumour? The French fries controversy: In May 2001, a class action lawsuit was filed against McDonald’s in Seattle, US. The lawsuit alleged that McDonalds had duped vegetarian customers into eating French fries that contained beef extracts.The French fries served at McDonald’s were falsely promoted as being 100% vegetarian. The French fries controversy began in 2000 when a Hindu Jain software engineer Hitesh Shah based in US happened to read a news article which mentioned that the French fries at McDonalds contained beef. Shah sent an email to the customer service dept of McDonalds regarding the contents to which they replied that McDonald’s French fries suppliers use a miniscule amount of beef flavouring as an ingredient in the raw product.They also said that they follow the ‘Code of Federal Regulations’ and that beef was not listed as an ingredient because normally the ingredients in ‘natural flavors’ are not broken down. Then a popular Indian-American newspaper, West India, carried Shah’s story and the news created widespread outrage among Hindus and vegetarians in the US. McDonald’s immediately released a statement saying that they never claimed that the French fries were 100% vegetarian. They said that the fries were cooked in pure vegetable oil and the company never stated that the fries were appropriate for vegetarians.They also said that it was upto the customer to ask about the flavor and its source. Later the activists found a letter sent by the company’s corporate headquarters to a consumer in response to an inquiry about vegetarian menu items. The mail clearly bundled French fries along with garden salads, whole grain cereal and English muffins as a completely vegetarian item . Further it was reported that many McDonald’s employees repeatedly told customers that there was absolutely no meat product in the fries.The ‘beef fries’ controversy attained a greater dimension in India as 85% of the country’s population was vegetarian and the non-vegetarians also did not consume beef usually because Hindus consider cows to be holy and sacred. Meanwhile in June 2001, another class action lawsuit was filed in the District Court in Travis County, Austin, Texas on behalf of all Hindus in Texas, alleging that Hindu moral and religious principles had been violated by their unintentional consumption of French fries that were flavoured with beef.Later two more lawsuits were filed in Illinois and New Jersey, taking the number of cases to five. Our views: We do not think that McDonald’s handled the controversy effectively as: * They did not accept their mistake in the start and McDonald’s said that they had never proclaimed French f ries to be appropriate for vegetarians while their employees repeatedly told customers that there was absolutely no meat product in the fries. * Also they blamed their mistake on the customers by saying that the customers should have asked about the flavors and its source.This enraged the vegetarian customers further. * As the public outrage intensified, McDonald’s released its conditional apology on its website admitting that the recipe for the fries used a miniscule trace of beef flavoring. However they did not accept that they misled the customers and they were not truly apologetic of their actions. * They said that they were complying with the law in terms of disclosing their ingredients, but they should have gone beyond the law and should have paid attention to consumers who avoid certain food product for religious, ethical and health reasons. McDonalds’ paid 10 million US$ to vegetarian ,religious groups & various groups devoted to Hindus , Sikhs & children nutri tion which the Indian attorney Harish Bharti thought was insufficient in monetary terms. * They gave an unconditional apology on the company website, newspaper & various other publications. * Also McDonald’s decided to convene an advisory board to advice on vegetarian matters. Q3. Discuss the steps taken by McDonald’s to play down the French fries controversy and critically comment whether the company will be able to come out of this unscathed.The French fries controversy impacted the image of the McDonald’s badly because of this McDonald’s was facing losses & protests from various groups. Steps taken by Mc Donald’s to play down the French fries controversy * In March 2002, McDonald’s announced to pay 10 million US dollars to the religious groups in a proposed settlement. Around 60% of this payment went to vegetarian organizations and the rest to various groups devoted to Hindus and Sikhs, children’s nutrition and kosher dietary pract ices. * It also decided to pay 4000 US $ each to the 12 plaintiffs in the five lawsuits. They also gave a detailed apology on the company website, newspapers and in various other publications. * McDonald’s also decided to convene an advisory board to advice on vegetarian matters. * They apologized for their mistakes in the newspapers. McDonald’s acknowledged that after switching over to vegetable oil in the 1990’s for the purpose of reducing cholesterol, mistakes were made in communicating to the customers about the ingredients in French fries. They apologized for the miscommunication and the hardships caused to the customers. Our views:No, we do not think that McDonald’s would come out completely unscathed because: * The Company would lose the customers base whose sentiments have been hurt because of this controversy. * People will now think twice before going to McDonald’s even after the companies claim not to use beef oil in the fries because Mc Donald’s had made false promises earlier as well. * Also it was revealed that McCain Foods was still in the process of growing the appropriate potatoes and needed another 2 yrs to begin supply, therefore the French fries were being sourced from the US. The brand & ethics of the company have been dented because of this controversy which McDonald’s would take a long time to build back their image. But with all this McDonald’s also implemented some positive policies which will help them regain their brand image. * They set up an advisory board to advise on vegetarian matters * McDonald’s also developed a special menu for Indian customers taking into consideration Indian culture and religious sentiments. They maintained quality standards by rejecting Lamb Weston’s supply of partially fried French fries as they did not meet quality standards. Suggestions: * Can come up with pure veg. restaurants. * No beef oil should be used in the frying process. * Sep arate veg. kitchens from non-veg. restaurants. * Should maintain the quality standards * Give details about the menu i. e. ingredients on the company’s website. Employees should also be made aware about the ingredients in food.

Brazilian Democratic Transition And Consolidation

Brazilian Democratic Transition And Consolidation Brazil, which is the largest country in South America and fifth largest country in the world, is also a political and economic leader in its continent. However, among the many nascent Latin American democracies, Brazil’s road to democracy was the most challenging (Linz and Stepan, 1996, p 166). Its democratization (1974-89) followed a cyclical pattern which alternated back and forth between quasi-democratic and authoritarian systems (Huntington, 1991, p 41). After a brief period of electoral democracy in the 1930s, military coups took control of the nation. The next three decades witnessed Brazil’s long authoritarian rule that was governed by a series of stable but harsh dictatorial regimes. In the 20th century, Brazil embarked on the path to electoral democracy, which was led by Vargas, the elected President. However, his rule plagued Brazil with several rebellions caused by military officers, the spread of communism across the country, and brutal tortures by governme nt agents. Thus, the short period of democracy ended and Vargas established a populist dictatorship. In 1945, military coup supported by the Brazilian oligarchy finally overthrew the ineffective and harsh leader. Brazil then plunged into a long authoritarian rule from 1964 to 1985, in which the military government held power and democratized Brazil through five major stages (Codato, 2006). It was this period of uncertainty and unrest caused by violent prolonged military dictatorship that created the climate for political compromise and democratic obligation. Causes for the breakdown of authoritarianism such as splits in the military led to the demand for re-democratization in Brazil. Democratization finally occurred in 1974 and coincided with the ‘Third Wave’ of democracy. One will be surprised and wonder how Brazil’s long period of authoritarianism under the reign of three capable leaders, Branco, Silva, and Medici’s leadership sparked a possible shift to a democracy. What factors pressured each successive military leader to concede to democratization? After a long military dictatorship, what caused the next administration, Geisel, to democratize Brazil? Finally, to what extent has democracy been consolidated? This paper will attempt to answer the above questions. I will first give a contextual knowledge about Brazil’s political transition which occurred in five stages, over the span of thirty years. Next, I will explain the reasons that caused the breakdown of authoritarianism in Brazil. Finally, I will evaluate the extent to which democracy in Brazil is consolidated based on its obstacles and threats, and suggest ways in which the democracy can be stabilized. History of Brazil’s Political Transition Establishing military dictatorship The first stage of Brazil’s political transition corresponds to the Castello Branco and Costa e Silva administrations (March, 1964 – December, 1968). The military ceased it s leadership in 1961 when vice president Joà £o Goulart resigned from presidency. He resigned with hopes of being reinstated again by popular demand, but was denied by the military’s fear of him being a communist. Following his resignation, the regime encountered difficulties in finding a new leader as no civilian politician was suitable for the existing revolutionary factions in governance. After fifteen days, Branco became the new president and managed to reform the political-economic system (Hudson, 1997). Being anti-Goulart and disapproving of his ruling methods, Branco rejected the extension of his presidency beyond Goulart’s term, or the institutionalization of the military’s power.