Sunday, January 26, 2020

Literature Review discussing British Petroleum’s environmental effects

Literature Review discussing British Petroleum’s environmental effects Societies today, more than ever, are faced with more complex and environmental problems with the proliferation of technological advancement as human populations mounts. It is paramount for large energy companies to balance the needs of stakeholders  [1]  and demonstrate their intent of environment stewardship. In BPs strategy on their corporate website, they state their goals for value creation while producing affordable energy that is secure and doesnt damage the environment  [2]  . In other words, this means progressing forward through the expansion of their energy production while bearing in mind the impact of their activities on the environment. This, in essence, illustrates BPs stance on sustainability and their environmental awareness. Policy of environmental awareness in British Petroleum Environmental awareness is defined as a broad philosophy and social movements with respect to the environmental conservation concerns and improvement in the state of the environment. It ties in with the responsible initiatives that demonstrate a corporations commitment to key environmental and safety issues. Recently, BP has came under the spotlight following the April 2010 explosion aboard the Deepwater Horizon rig which killed 11 people and caused one of the worst oil spills in history  [3]  . Given its status as one of the worlds largest energy providers, this catastrophe has brought about a lot of clout over BPs environmental and safety practices. Subsequently, this led to exhaustive investigation that revealed inadequate controls and incompliance with major aspects of offshore drilling safety. As a result, BP announced its commitment to continue working with government officials and other operators to identify and boost industry-wide safety measures  [4]  . Nevertheless, BP publicizes a sustainability report annually to demonstrate their sustainability efforts in action while aligning themselves to their environmental policy. BPs policy follows a fundamental belief that it can make a difference in the world  [5]  . It strives to be the local energy company by the production of energy with minimal impact on the environment. New initiatives have been launched to incorporate benefits to the local community and help in establishing its position as a responsibility energy provider. For example, BP has invested around $1billion  [6]  annually in low-carbon energy in the last 5 years, putting them well positioned in reaching their commitment of $8 billion  [7]  by 2015. In light of climate change, BP showed recognition to the significance of climate change. Its environmental policy embraces legislation changes and aligns the firms sustainability actions to ensure environmental stewardship. This includes stringent protocols imposed to ensure that all projects and operations are designed and conducted in accordance with legal and internal environmental standards  [8]  . For example, BPs major operating sites today are all certified under the international environment management system standard ISO 14001  [9]  , demonstrating the huge strides in minimizing their environmental impact. According to BPs sustainability review report 2009, it demonstrates BPs awareness of their responsibility as a major energy provider to manage the environmental impacts of energy production and consumption. They have led a programme of action that have since brought about reduction of 7.9 million  [10]  tones of greenhouse gas emissions from their operations. BP actively seeks out new environmental technologies and methods to reduce the environmental impact of providing energy  [11]  . For instance, it has developed technologies such as wide azimuth tower streamer (WATS)  [12]  that enables BP to discover reservoirs previously obscured and maximize recovery and efficiency of their exploration activity. Initiatives taken by BP to Sustainability Issues BP operates according to strict internal control systems that extend from board-level policies to operational process to ensure businesses conduct their business responsibly  [13]  . Over the years, they have progressed significantly in their environmental sustainability issues. Sustainability is defined as the capacity to endure. At BP, this definition is extended to include the renewal of assets, creation and delivery of better products and services that meet the ever-changing needs of society, attracting successive generation of employees, contribution to a sustainable environment and retain the trust and support of their customers, shareholders, and the communities in which they operate  [14]  . Initiatives for Climate Change With greenhouse gases rising at an ever increasing rate, governments are urged by the risk of climate change to introduce new measures to limit emissions. On this front, BP has outlined emissions assessments to enforce the most efficient environmental methods. This is executed through their proprietary framework for both developed and developing countries to commit to identify mitigating action and quantify emission targets  [15]  . In addition to that, the BP website  [16]  offers a myriad of environmental tools to provide transparency and insight into BPs environmental efforts and allow individuals to assess their own carbon footprint and lifestyle  [17]  . ISO 14001 and Environmental Sustainability BP follows the ISO 14001 environmental management standards and publishes a sustainability review to track its environmental sustainability issues. In the fiscal year of 2009, the organization has launched several initiatives in light of environmental sustainability. Notably, one of these initiatives is BPs stance and support on carbon pricing. They firmly believe that the provision of carbon price will make energy conservation a more attractive venture and encourage investments in alternative energy space to cut down the carbon usage in organizations. Moreover, BP has designed a plan of action in their environmental sustainability efforts by optimizing their own operations towards a more energy efficiency model and had led in the creation of new products to lower customers carbon footprint  [18]  . Their drive in the former has saw the inception of projects such as the reducing flaring and venting, process optimization projects and waste heat recovery. This initiative will bring about a total reduction of about 7.9 million tonnes of carbon usage. In the latter, BP has worked in collaboration with Ford to engineer advanced Castrol lubricants  [19]  that sole advantage bring improvement in fuel efficiency and reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, BP has placed emphasis on building its low-carbon energy portfolio with substantial investments in biofuels, wind power and solar photovoltaic systems. Initiatives in the public domain Besides these programmes, BP is active in its participation of policy debate with its push to drive climate change at international and national levels. For example, they have signed the Copenhagen Communiquà © to demonstrate their support in the private sector call towards a long term ambitious, robust and equitable global deal on climate change  [20]  . These measures have paved the way in BPs efforts to measure the environmental sustainability issues. Last but not least, BP has been a generous contributor in research programmes in particularly on climate change and low-carbon options. These include several high profile research such as the Carbon Mitigation Initiative at Princeton University  [21]  , its collaboration with Chinese Academy of Science on the Clean Energy Facing the Future programme  [22]   as well as the Energy Initiatives launched at MIT and Caltech. BP Commitment to Health and safety measures BP is committed to seek out improvements in its safety performance through the implementation of procedures and processes in pursuit of their mission statement of no accidents and no harm to people  [23]  . In light of the 2010 Gulf oil spill disaster, BP has came down upon a lot of scrutiny with respect to its safety practices. As a result, the organization announced its commitment to continue working with government officials and other operators to identify and boost industry-wide safety measures  [24]  . Improvement and Initiatives made In wake of the Gulf of Mexico disaster, BP announced its decision for an overhauling reorganization that would give safety a higher priority. This first measure implemented saw the creation of a new safety division  [25]  that would preside over the companys operations. This division will use a systematic approach to seek improvements in safety performance through promoting safe operations and upping their efforts on process safety. BP is also shifting away from the use of contractors in light of the accident which caused 11 deaths of rig workers. Despite outsourcing certain functions to contractors, BP is still the company that is solely responsible for the accidental damages. On top of these changes, BP is currently assessing its executive bonus scheme that puts more weight to financial and operational targets. This new restructured bonus schemes would take into account more on key safety measure to align employees objectives to its safety practices. This will help improve the health and safety practice by perpetuating its safety culture to yield results. For example, BP reviews employee views on various dimension of safety with the Pulse plus survey  [26]   to achieve continued progress in integrating safety into their business. Furthermore, BP has launched an internal safety awards to foster pride in attaining BPs values. This recognition on the importance of safety across all aspects would further elevate BPs profile of safety  [27]  and help rebuild the trust in BP. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and British Petroleum Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is defined as a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis  [28]  . Today, CSR is more relevant than ever, in particularly for a large energy company such as BP that engages in the exploration and production of oil. CSR is often debated as the appropriate actions that companies should take that goes beyond its philanthropic efforts and delves further into the fundamental question of how companies produce their goods and provide their services  [29]  . At BP, CSR is recognized as the primary responsibility to maximize the value of the firm and operation of the company in accordance with the norms and values of its shareholders  [30]  . This broad notion as defined by BP reflects its concern about the operating environment, its license to operate within it, which provides the impetus for BP to undertake a broader role in societal affairs  [31]  . BPs CSR practice and Workforce Welfare BPs CSR involvement goes well beyond than just minimizing its emissions. According to the corporate website, BP is involved in their contribution to policy debate, supporting research and development for newer, cleaner technologies in power and transport  [32]  . Besides that, this also includes the consideration of building business skills of the local people through community based development programmes, supporting education and giving aid to local organization. In the instance of building business skills, BP has ran a range of programmes designed to build the skills and impart knowledge on supply chain management to geographical locations like Azerbaijian, Indonesia, Trinidad and Tobago. This programmes helps accomplish a win-win situation for both parties, providing local companies with the expertise and know-how while enabling BP to source goods and services locally. This sharing of technical expertise extends to local governments where BP draws from their expertise and glo bal reach to support local governments in the development of their economic sustainability. For example, BP funded an EU-based think tank, to consult the Azerbaijian Ministry of Economic Development on macroeconomics analysis, economic planning and policy formulation  [33]  . BP is also active on supporting education, investing in resources to build strengths in management education. A case in point is the post-graduate degree in energy law in Angola that BP played a vital role in the development and financing, while working alongside governments, state oil company and academia  [34]  . They have offered educational resources such as books, classrooms, teachers training and management training. BP have delivered immunization exercises for the Tangguh community and educated the local residents on reproductive health and personal hygiene. Their active involvement resulted in a plunge in malaria prevalence from 23% in 2000 to less than 1% in 2009  [35]  . As a result of BP CSR practices, many of these communities and villages have been provided with better facilities such as rainwater harvesting systems and villagers are able to substantial improvement in their workforce welfare. BP Building a sustainable talent pipeline BP has a clear understanding that people are fundamental to the success of business operation. Over the years, they have focused their efforts on building a sustainable talent pipeline  [36]   where they recruit graduates and trained them from the ground up to progress their career into roles that could help maximize their contribution to the business. Cross culture and Diversity Cross culture issues simply refers to the issues that involve dealing of two or more different cultures  [37]  . BPs understanding of cross culture issues can be reflected in their commitment to build a diverse organization, where people of different cultures are embraced to foster an environment that is collegial and respectful. They firmly value a multicultural workplace and embed diversity and inclusion across the organization. BP runs a global diversity council where diversity plans are established and tailored accordingly to each strategic performance unit (SPU). Here, the diversity plans sets specific targets and organizes networking events for affinity groups whereby certain sub-sets of employees can network and exchange experiences. For example, BP currently has the BP Womens International Network; the BP Pride group for homosexuals; BP Global Reach Group; BP Gray Matters and the US-based BP Asian, African-American and Latino networks  [38]  . The availability of such affinity groups demonstrates BPs understanding of cross cultural issues and practice of diversity. Within these affinity groups, members come together to discuss key issues and learn from each other. These groups would provide them with an informal setting to build their network and gather contacts. The BP Womens International Network, for example, is a global network with a sole purpose of connecting women and encourage women to stay with BP to fulfill their career goals  [39]  . This openness of BP with its core focus on diversity and inclusion is certainty a strategy that will enable its success in the 21st century global marketplace  [40]  . It leverages diversity exemplified by gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, language, sexual orientation and identity, religion, and tribe, among other things-while preparing itself for the future by continuing to diversify its employee base  [41]  . Ultimately, BPs diversity practice will inevitably help spur innovation, creativity and a deepened awareness of diversity and inclusion concepts  [42]  . Comparative analysis with key competitors In this task, I will seek to do a comparison of BPs equal opportunity and diversity practice with its key competitors such as Shell and Conoco Phillips. BP At BP, the equal opportunity and diversity practice consists of three basic tenets which are (i) fair treatment and equal employment opportunity; (ii) respectful, harassment-free workplace; and (iii) privacy and employee confidentiality  [43]  . These tenets strive to draw from BPs diversity as strength to create an environment that fosters mutual trust whereby diversity and inclusion are valued. BP follows a policy that fair treatment, courtesy and respect are entitlement given to every employee and would show no tolerance for offensive and belligerent behavior. The last tenet is a rule that protects the confidentially of their employees personal information. Royal Dutch Shell Similarly, Shells motto is to embed diversity and inclusion (DI). They firmly believe that this would help create a stronger future for Shell and help achieve their aspirations. Shell defines the management of DI to involve addressing the factors of difference and fully capitalizing on the potential contribution of all employees to continue to build their leadership in place. At Shell, DI is seen as a competitive advantage that will enable Shell to cultivate a competitive culture  [44]  . On the equal opportunity front, Shell also emphasizes their position as an equal opportunity employer that strives to recruit based on technical and competencies. ConocoPhillips At ConocoPhillips, a similar stance on diversity is taken where the company strives to represent and reflect the global communities in which we live and work  [45]  . They stand by the creation of an inclusive environment that respects contributions and differences of every individual  [46]  . Here, the same catchphrase of Diversity and Inclusion encompasses the creation of a multicultural work environment, together with an inclusive culture to ensure individuals contributions and differences are respected and valued  [47]  . In terms of equal opportunity aspect, ConocoPhilips wholly supports the principle of equally opportunity in employments and welcomes applications from all suitably qualified individuals  [48]  . Conclusion To conclude, this report examines the many responsibilities that falls on a large organization like British Petroleum (BP). Given its status as one of the worlds largest energy providers, BP has demonstrated their sustainability efforts in action while aligning themselves to their environmental policy. Over the years, they have launched several initiatives to tackle their sustainability issues and progressed significantly in their environmental awareness. This includes initiatives for climate change, imposition of ISO 14001 environmental management standards and initiatives in the public domain. In the wake of the Gulf of Mexico disaster, a comprehensive overview of their safety practices and social responsibilities initiatives are examine. This details the contribution and improvements made in the improvement of workforce welfare in geographical locations such as Azerbaijian, Indonesia, Trinidad and Tobago. Finally, this segues to a discussion on the cross-culture issues at BP and its practice of diversity. The last bit of the report is a comparative analysis of the equal opportunity and diversity practices in BP and across its key competitors.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Writing Assignment 1

Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary Writing Assignment 1 A paper submitted to Dr. Rick Garner In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the course Discipleship Ministries DSMN 500 By Hershel L. Kreis, Jr. November 4, 2012 Toano, Virginia INTRODUCTION While there are those who may be uncomfortable with the idea that worship is a goal in making disciples, the goal of Christian education according to Mitchell is to make a disciple who worships Jesus.Mitchell points out that worship is more than just showing up at church on Sunday morning for an hour of corporate worship. He points out that worship according to John 4:19 -24 goes much deeper than just that time of corporate worship that we often think of as worship. He points out that worship involves the whole person, mind, body and soul. Anderson states that corporate worship is â€Å"an action of discipling and discipleship† and a â€Å"school for the Lord’s service. Discipleship is just one part of the equation n eeded to assist Christians in spiritual formation to maturity. Christian education also has a role to play. The goal of both discipleship and Christian education is to produce spiritually mature disciples of Christ. Education, as the term is used by Csinos and many others, is used to refer to learning that takes place within churches or schools. Formal Christian education and discipleship can be seen as points along a continuum that is designed to increase the spiritual maturity of believers.Mitchell’s definition of Christian education, when broken down gives a number of clues as to the role it plays in regards to assisting Christians to become more mature in their walk with Christ. When Mitchell speaks of Christian education as â€Å"engaging learners in acquiring the mind and skill sets,† he clearly shows that there has to be a transfer of knowledge in some fashion. Faithful expository preaching allows the Christian to understand how the Bible is not just a collectio n of 66 individualized books, but instead an interlocking mosaic that explains God’s love for man and the relationship between them.Topical preaching is good for learning about particular aspects of faith and what the Bible has to say about the issues that Christians confront in today’s society, but expository preaching is faithful to not only the text, but the context of the passage in light of the entire Bible. But, faithful preaching of God’s Word is not the only way that Christian education is being accomplished. There are still many churches that conduct Sunday schools. These Sunday schools have varied curricula and, as a result, their success as a tool in spiritual formation can vary.For those who use Sunday school curricula provided by a denominational source, they can provide a great deal of information to the Christian as to what the denomination believes and why they believe it. Other formats include topical studies or studies that examine books of the Bible in a manner similar to expository preaching. While Sunday school materials vary, the importance to the individual Christian will also vary. If a class was using a topical study, there may be particular lessons or units that may not apply to all that are in the class.While Sunday schools and corporate worship provide Christian education to believers, they are less intimate than small groups. Small groups are, in many ways, a hybrid of formal Christian education and discipleship, depending on the way in which they are run and the content in which they cover. Some small groups tend to be smaller formal education by doing Bible studies. Other small groups tend to lean more towards discipleship in that they are based on encouragement, accountability and support for the members.These small groups are often termed accountability groups for just that reason. These small groups not only help the Christian learn about the fundamentals of the faith, but also allow others to hold them ac countable to follow Christ in the details of life. Both formal Christian education and small groups help the Christian with â€Å"understanding of the Creator, the created order, and themselves as created in the image of God, while also discovering their contribution and place in God’s Kingdom, as well as their community. †Spiritual formation is always occurring in the Christians life through Christian education as it is the changes in our spiritual maturity as we continue to follow Jesus. This spiritual formation grows at an individual rate depending on the amount of overall Christian education received, either through formal or informal means. The informal Christian education is often thought of as being discipleship in the truest sense of the word. When many think of discipleship, they think of the situation where a mature Christian pours themselves into the life of a less mature Christian in a mentoring role in an informal fashion.The term discipleship has a broad range of meanings in the church today according to Collinson including encouraging a Christian lifestyle, referring to the relationship between a believer and Christ, and helping new believers grow in the spiritual disciplines. A simpler definition may be that â€Å"discipleship means following after Jesus and doing what He says to do. † But discipleship is also seen as a calling, not a program or profession, and a daily living with Jesus. But, the Bible refers to a disciple in three different ways.In the first use of the word, it is nothing more than a person being educated by a teacher, such as in Matthew 10:24 and 13:52. This way of defining a disciple is a life transformation of becoming more like a person’s master, such as seen in Matthew 16:24 or Mark 8:34. A second way is when someone starts the process of becoming a disciple or being a disciple, such as in Matthew 27:57 or Luke 14:26-27. Lastly, there are those who are referred to as disciples that only occasio nally followed Jesus, such as those in Matthew 8:21.Samra summarizes discipleship succinctly by saying that it is the â€Å"process of becoming like Christ. † A one on one discipling relationship allows for the greatest accountability and requires the greatest amount of trust on the part of both individuals. This type of discipleship often is the strongest and most effective to achieve true spiritual growth. While it is quite easy to evade issues that may be struggles in your life while listening to expository preaching or in a Sunday school setting, it is almost impossible when in a one-on-one relationship with another Christian.As a result of the trust that has been developed in the course of the relationship and the permission given by both parties to ask the tough questions of each other, there is no escaping the immense amount of learning that can produce a great deal of spiritual maturity in a new Christian. While the goal of Christian education and discipleship is spir itual formation of the new believer into a true disciple who makes other true disciples, this concept has been watered down in the American church today by emphasis on programs instead of progressive spiritual growth in every member’s life.There are many churches that do not encourage spiritual growth with anything beyond worship services on Sunday morning and evening, Sunday school and possibly a prayer service on Wednesday night. Many churches emphasize education over discipleship as it is easier to do and less labor intensive on the part of church members. Many churches now seem to emphasize numbers of people in the pews at the cost of sacrificing the spiritual growth of its members because there is less vulnerability in a large gathering along with a higher participation rate than in a small group or one-on-one discipleship setting.Churches today are flooded with programs while showing little regards to the process of disciple making. While the church wants spiritual grow th to occur, the most effective way to achieve this is through discipleship. While spiritual growth can take place as a result of conferences, special events or classes, when looking at the biblical precedence for spiritual formation, it was done through discipleship, as shown by the examples of Paul and Jesus.It is important for every church or ministry to evaluate what it is doing from time to time to see if the programs they are participating in are making true disciples, large numbers of spiritual infants or just people who attend church for what they can get out of it instead of what they bring as an offering of their time and talents. Mature Christians hold the key to producing other Christians who will then follow the Great Commission to make disciples, not just followers or church attenders.American churches today are full of attenders and that is why we see the current trend of declining membership throughout the country today. The church should focus on making disciples wh ich over time will turn into true worshipers who worship God in every part of their lives every minute of their lives, not just during the course of a program, event or training offered by the church. Jesus made disciples who changed the world without programs. These disciples demonstrated true worship in their lives and passed it to succeeding generations.Unfortunately, the message has become twisted over time from the simple message of a disciple being one who worships God in spirit and in truth. We must recapture the essence of true discipleship before it is lost forever in the next program or fad proposed by a popular Christian leader, instead of following Jesus’ formula for lasting discipleship. BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, E. Byron. â€Å"Worship: Schooling in the Tradition of Jesus. † Theology Today 66, no. 1 (April 2009): 21-32. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed October 29, 2012).Collinson, Sylvia. â€Å"Making Disciples and the Christian Faith. † Evangelical Review Of Theology 29, no. 3 (July 2005): 240-50. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed October 29, 2012). Csinos, David M. â€Å"†Come Follow Me†: Apprenticeship in Jesus' Approach to Education. † Religious Education 105, no. 1 (January 2010): 45-62. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed October 29, 2012). Grace, W. Madison III. â€Å"True Discipleship: Radical Voices from the Swiss Brethren to Dietrich Bonhoeffer to Today. Southwestern Journal Of Theology 53, no. 2 (March 2011): 135-53. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed October 29, 2012). Houston, James M. â€Å"The Future of Spiritual Formation. † Journal of Spiritual Formation ;amp; Soul Care 4, no. 2 (September 2011): 131-39. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed October 29, 2012). Mitchell, Michael R. Leading, Teaching and Making Disciples. Bloomington, Indiana: Crossbooks, 2010. Samra, James G. â€Å"A Biblical View of Discipleship. † Bibliotheca Sacra 160, no. 638 (April 2003): 219-34.ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed October 29, 2012). ——————————————– [ 1 ]. . Michael R. Mitchell, Leading, Teaching and Making Disciples (Bloomington, Indiana: Crossbooks, 2010), 262. [ 2 ]. . Ibid. , 265. [ 3 ]. . E. Byron Anderson, â€Å"Worship: Schooling in the Tradition of Jesus,† Theology Today 66, no. 1 (April 2009): 29. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed October 29, 2012). [ 4 ]. . David M. Csinos, â€Å"†Come Follow Me†: Apprenticeship in Jesus' Approach to Education,† Religious Education 105, no. (January 2010): 51. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed October 29, 2012). [ 5 ]. . Mitchell, Leading, Teaching and Making Disciples, 242. [ 6 ]. . James M. H ouston, â€Å"The Future of Spiritual Formation,† Journal of Spiritual Formation & Soul Care 4, no. 2 (September 2011): 135. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed October 29, 2012). [ 7 ]. . Sylvia Collinson, â€Å"Making Disciples and the Christian Faith,† Evangelical Review Of Theology 29, no. 3 (July 2005): 240. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed October 29, 2012). [ 8 ]. W. Madison Grace III, â€Å"True Discipleship: Radical Voices from the Swiss Brethren to Dietrich Bonhoeffer to Today,† Southwestern Journal Of Theology 53, no. 2 (March 2011): 150. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed October 29, 2012). [ 9 ]. . Houston, â€Å"The Future of Spiritual Formation,† 132. [ 10 ]. . James G. Samra, â€Å"A Biblical View of Discipleship,† Bibliotheca Sacra 160, no. 638 (April 2003): 219. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed October 29, 2012). [ 11 ]. . Ib id. [ 12 ]. . Ibid. , 219. [ 13 ]. . Ibid. , 220. [ 14 ]. . Ibid. , 225.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Housing for single homeless people in wales Free Essay Example, 2000 words

Policy is therefore a driving force that drives an organisation or a state to specific desired goals. When policies are formulated and implemented well, then it is easy to realise the set goals. Social policy is welfare-oriented and is concerned with enhancing support to the social poor (Titmuss, 1974: p. 141). Note that social policy does not only concern the poor, but also other unprivileged, though economically able members of the society like old age, women and children. To drive this point home let’s use an example. It is a fact that not all women are poor or have physical or mental challenges but social policies tend to consider them towards their emancipation from gender biasness. According to Farlex (2013) social policy is a line of argument rationalising the course of action of a government as pertains to social issues. The lines of actions are carefully thought and planned to ensure change and amelioration of the lives of members of a community. Having defined so cial policy in general, it is safe to concentrate on one particular locality and a specific problem in for more elaboration. We will write a custom essay sample on Housing for single homeless people in wales or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now The paper will delve into examining housing for single homeless people in Wales. Wales is a mountainous, island country in the North-West Europe and is a member state of the famous United Kingdom (Barrow, 2012). Housing is a vital necessity and according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs it is categorised as a basic need together with food and clothing (Businessballs. com, 2012). It is clear that shelter is a very important commodity for survival and every government should put in place well researched and implementable policies to enhance proper housing. Though vital, housing is a major challenge for many people owing to its high cost. A review on housing in Wales indicates that many single people are homeless in the country. Assemblywales. com (2013: p. 2) reports that, â€Å"between July and September 2006, Welsh Assembly Government figures showed that 782, out of a total of 1741, households aged between 16 and 25 in Wales were deemed by lo cal authorities to be eligible, unintentionally homeless and in priority need of housing. † This is a significant proportion of the population and should be addressed swiftly. About three-quarters of those recognised to be homeless are people who have no dependent children and most of the remaining quarter are lone parents (Poverty. org. uk, 2013). Further, statistics indicate that this number has skyrocketed with time up to 9,000 internal homeless households (Poverty. org. uk, 2013).

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Industrialization Experience in Sri Lanka - 1506 Words

Abstract On the whole, this paper gives an analysis on the impact of globalization on Sri Lanka and further examines the industrialization experience in Sri Lanka following the market-oriented policy transformation instigated in 1977, while emphasizing on the establishment of trade Policies including Foreign-Direct-Investments (FDI). Moreover, this paper recognizes that policy alterations have positively played a key role in converting a primary-product-exporting economy to an economy which manufactures exports value-added goods. The paper discusses different phases of Government policy towards international trade private investment in Sri Lanka since the independence in 1948, with the objective of emphasizing the positive impact of†¦show more content†¦7) Athukorala and Jayasuriya (2004, p. 5) states that the government of Sri Lanka back then, determined on a broad trade liberalization process in 1977 as a rejoinder to the depressing economic result of an inward-looking policy. Furthermore, by doing so Sri Lanka became the foremost country to establish a government policy of trade liberalization in the South Asian region as well. At the outset, a number of stern controls were eliminated for all investors. According to International Monetary Fund (1996, p. 20-45) these included reduction of tariff and non-tariff trade barriers, amalgamation of the exchange rate, modification of administered prices, restructuring of export taxes, liberalization of interest rates and diminished restrictions on pricing and investment by the private sector. In addition, during this phase, Sri Lanka experienced drastic diminution of restrictions on foreign investment with new trade incentives for export-oriented foreign investments under an attractive Free Trade Zone (FTZ) which is also referred to as an Export Processing Zone (EPZ) According to Kelegama (2002, p. 1488) private investments responded well to these reforms, increasing by an average of 13% a year within four years. 3.0 Textile Apparel Industry 3.1 Textile Apparel Industry on a Global SettingShow MoreRelatedSri Lanka Post Independence Essay1532 Words   |  7 Pagesfirst decade after independence in 1948, Sri Lanka (commonly called Ceylon until 1972) continued as an open trading nation with only relatively minor trade and exchange rate restrictions. From the late 1950s, a combination of the influence of the state of development thinking at the time, change in political leadership and balance of payments difficulties led to the adoption of a state-led import substitution development strategy. By the mid-1970s the Sri Lankan economy was one of the most inward-orientedRead MoreIntensifying Working Women’s Burden: The Impact of Globalization on Women Labor in Asia1464 Words   |  6 Pagescountry’s development and how the intricacies of free-trade or globalization impacts the lives of women- their personhood, their families and their communities. The research involved about eight (8) Asian countries – India, Hongkong, Thailand, Pakistan, Sri Langka, Indonesia, South Korea and the Philippines with poor women who are very much involved and working in the fishing, agriculture, manufacturing/industrial sectors as well as migrant women workers. The Asia Pacific Research Network (APRN) tookRead MoreSri Lankan Apparel Industry : Mas Holdings Post Mfa Essay examples5193 Words   |  21 PagesSri Lankan Apparel Industry : MAS Holdings Facing The Post MFA Era Prepared By: Sulatha Gengatharan Schulich School of Business York University, Canada April 18, 2009 Executive Summary With the phasing out of the Multi Fiber Agreement[i] in 2005, China India have bombarded the market with low cost mass produced apparel. Exports from India and China have grown over 100% with the expiration of the MFA whilst other countries such Sri Lanka and Pakistan have seen a loss of market shareRead MorePrinciples Of Trade Policy And Import Substituition Industrialization Essay2185 Words   |  9 PagesUNDERLYING PRINCIPLES OF TRADE POLICY AND IMPORT SUBSTITUITION INDUSTRIALIZATION Trade Policy Trade Policy basically characterizes objectives, values, guidelines and directions which relates to interchange relations between nations. As their goal is to help the country’s international trade the policies are particular to every nation and are defined by its public authorities. Taxes imposed on import and export, assessment of rules and regulations, and duties and shares are incorporated in nationRead MoreDoing Business in the Asia/Pacific Rim Region31325 Words   |  126 Pages6534-5155 PHONE +(65) 6534-2622 FAX Contact Attorney: Rajaram Ramiah SRI LANKA SINGAPORE Yoon Yang Kim Shin Yu 19th Floor, ASEM Tower 159-1 Samsung-Dong, Gangnam-Gu Seoul 135-798 Korea +(82-2) 6003-7000 PHONE +(82-2) 6003-7804 FAX Contact Attorney: Jay K. Lee THAILAND SOUTH KOREA Nithya Partners No. 51, Gregory’s Road Colombo 7 Sri Lanka +94-11-4712-625 PHONE +94-11-2695-223 FAX Contact Attorney: ChanakaRead MoreChina s Impact On China1762 Words   |  8 Pagespoint under development or being arranged. On the off chance that the four in China are incorporated, then there were twelve nations included and twenty-two zones in Asia. Creating nations in Asia, for example, Thailand and Sri Lanka, have found another method for industrialization which favors global mandating. This is one of collective improvement in chose zones to save money on expenses of interest in framework and even political situations within these areas so as to draw in projects, both neighborhoodRead MoreNationalism in a Multicultural Society1904 Words   |  8 Pagespurposefully encouraged through the allocation of services and privileges, with the state adjudicating disputes to bolster unity† (Bernard Yack, 2003) . Ernest Gellner, a philosopher and social anthropologist , argued that nations are a by-product of industrialization. Modernization theorists regard the printing press and capitalism as necessary conditions for nationalism. The greater the group nationalism, the greater the group homogeneity of attitudes, beliefs, language spoken and ways of behaving, the greaterRead MoreRmg Sector in Bangladesh2596 Words   |  11 Pagesbasis only on the secondary data. * The survey was conducted in a very short time so we were not able to collect more information. * This survey made on crisis situation of Bangladesh, so it was difficult to collect samples. * Lack of experience in this field. Analysis Technique amp; Report Writing: In preparing this report, we approached according to the following procedure: * Select the topic * Collect information from different sources * Sorting information * Analysis andRead MoreAccountancy Profession in Bangladesh9589 Words   |  39 Pages(1958) reported that from the late 19th century British accounting firms started establishing offices in other countries. Deloitte, Deve, Griffiths and Co., opened offices in 17 foreign cities during 1890-1914. With the start of the British industrialization, the UK became the birthplace of the accounting profession. The British assisted the Americans with capital to shift to an industrial economy. British auditors accompanied the investors to provide reliable financial information, as there wasRead MoreThe Impact Of Income Inequality On Economic Growth2256 Words   |  10 Pagessustained. This could be attributed to the fact that most developing countries are characterised by a traditional agricultural economy with low productivity potential and as it transforms through the process of economic growth and industrialization, they begin to experience high levels of inequality at the initial phase , which will eventually even out. Kakwani (1986), claimed that there were two main factors that could explain the rise in income inequality during the early stages of growth; concentration