Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Amy Connor Dr. Wambuii POLS 4520 29, October 2015 Dead Aid Review Dambisa MoyoÃ¢â¬â¢s Dead Aid was an enjoyable read that presents a well-rounded discussion pertaining to foreign aid, and does not particularly aim to please. I believe MoyoÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion and thoughts regarding aid in Africa to be mostly valid, based upon her upbringing in Zambia and her extensive and diverse educational background. Dambisa does fantastic work of noting otherÃ¢â¬â¢s publishings, projects, and/or approaches to the effects of aid on underdeveloped nations. The purpose of this review is to not only give the audience a basic understanding of Dead Aid, but to also offer up my personal critique of the concepts and ideas presented by Moyo. Dambisa Moyo was born and raised in Zambia, with a Ph.D. in Economics from Oxford, a Master of Public Administration degree from Harvard, and an MBA in Finance from American University, along with several other degrees in different fields of study. Moyo is a truly brilliant and successful woman. In Dead Aid, she pre sents new ideas that are difficult for people living in developed nations, particularly Americans, to swallow. What is aid? Aid is defined as an action that aims to help, support, or assist in the achievement of something. In the context of MoyoÃ¢â¬â¢s Dead Aid, I will be utilizing the term Ã¢â¬ËaidÃ¢â¬â¢ in reference to lending or granting of monetary assistance from the developed world to underdeveloped or developing nations. Dead Aid is a criticism of aid and assistanceShow MoreRelatedSummary Of Dead Aid : Why Aid Is Not Working And How There Is A Better Way For Africa1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHow to Improve: Africa Is Aid Helping or Hindering Development As we were able to see in the Webtext, No More Aid To Africa, Dambisa Moyo a native of South Africa explains why she believes no more aid should be given to Africa. Her argument is provocative: not only has international aid not helped African countries modernize, itÃ¢â¬â¢s actually responsible for keeping the continent underdeveloped. In 2009 the economist laid out her case in the bestselling book Dead Aid: Why Aid is Not Working and How ThereRead MoreThe Security Exchange Commission Filed Charges Against Rite Aid1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRite Aid Senior Management) These charges were on the basis of accounting fraud and were filed against senior leadership ranging from the former CEO to a former Vice Chairman, specifically Martin Grass the chief executive officer, Frank Bergonzi the chief financial officer, and Franklin Brown a former vice chairman. Security and exchange commission alleged that Ã¢â¬Å"Rite Aid overstated its income and every quarter from May 1997 to May 1999.Ã¢ â¬ (SEC Announces Fraud Charges Against Former Rite Aid SeniorRead MoreDisciple Of The Local Church1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages DISCIPLE MAKING IN THE LOCAL CHURCH A Written Assignment 3 Cynthia Taylor DSMN 500- B10 September, 2014 Ã¢â¬Æ' SUMMARY According to Early Dempsey, Ã¢â¬Å"a disciple is a person, while discipleship is a process. A disciple is a passionate follower of Jesus Christ who is intimately involved in the mission of Christ. On the other hand, discipleship is the process of moving the disciple towards spiritual maturity and the mission of Christ. Being a disciple is GodÃ¢â¬â¢s perfect will for every individualRead MoreThe Global Humanitarian Assistant Report1583 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHumanitarian aid assistance and hence Humanitarian aid or relief workers have been deployed to the affected areas. United Nation Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) (cited in ReliefWeb, 2008) describes humanitarian aid workers as, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ¦all workers engaged by humanitarian agencies, whether internationally or nationally recruited, or formally or informally retained from the beneficiary community, to conduct the activities of that agency.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ Due to the fact that Humanitarian Aid WorkersRead MoreThe Mythology Of Vampires From The Past1247 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthese past societies, with regards to how they viewed the dead. Burials that differed from what is considered Ã¢â¬ËnormalÃ¢â¬â¢ for a particular culture may be classified as deviant (Betsinger, Scott 2014; 467). These burial sites, along with accounts of vampirism contribute to the research being conducted to date. Archaeologists and anthropologists take into account an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life prior to death, how they died, and excavations of burial sites; to aid in accounting for vampire beliefs in these societiesRead MoreTim OBriens Captivating and Life-Changing Story The Things They Carried632 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesphotographs of her. He carries his dreams of her love. He and the others carried their necessities such as Ã¢â¬Å"P-38 can opener, pocket knife, heat tabs, wrist watch, dog tags, mosquito repellant, chewing gum, candy, cigarettes, salt tablets, p ackets of Kool-aid, lighters, matches, sewing kits, Military payment Certificates, C rations, and two or three canteens of waterÃ¢â¬ (OBrien, 1990). Cross also carried the guilt of Ted Lavenders death. Ã¢â¬Å"As first lieutenant and platoon leader, Jimmy Cross carried a compassRead MoreThe Doctrine Of Predestination By Robert Charles Sproul1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJohn CalvinÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions through a modern lens. Along the way, the evaluation may reveal unknown or overlooked characteristics. Resultantly, this review will conduct a short summary of Chosen by GodÃ¢â¬â¢s content and survey its major strengths and weaknesses, providing researchers information by which the work can be evaluated. Summary Sproul begins his book with an inviting conversation of the common items identifying Americans. Readers are expected to identify with the idea of baseball, hot dogs, appleRead MoreCanada and Mexico: Cases of Security Threats749 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMinister of Foreign Affairs, Dear Sir: This is an eventful time of the month for our government, with our Olympic championsÃ¢â¬â¢ competing in the Sochi Olympics 2014. Despite that, several incidents have happened on February 10th that require attention. Summary: 1. An uprising of cyber threats for Canadians. 2. Canadian couple slain in Mexico, Sunday February 9th. 3. OttawaÃ¢â¬â¢s Mexican visa policy hurting business. 4. Donor Fatigue arising as SyriaÃ¢â¬â¢s war drags on. 1. An audit by Russ JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ office claimedRead MoreWhat Caused the Darfur Genocide? Essay894 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesas young as 6 years old was raped and mothers were undressed in front of their children. Furthermore, young women were raped so brutally that they have been unable to walk after the attack. Not only thousands of women and children are raped but also dead bodies are tossed in wells to contaminate water supplies and the entire villages are being burned down. As a result, today, over 400 villages were completely destroyed, 480,000 people have been killed and over 2.8 million people are displaced. TheRead MoreSyria Crisis Essay1280 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUnder the request of National Security Adviser Flynn, the following is a summary on the current situation in Syria and a recommendation for the best course of action to undertake. In it you will find a set of possible policy options to address the situation. SITUATION In 2011 the civil war in Syria began after protesters clashed against Syrian security forces leaving many protestors dead. What began as protests against the government of Syrian President Bashar Al Assad calling for him to step
Monday, December 16, 2019
Name Professor Subject Date Airport Security: Essential to Guard Citizens Airport security measures are essential to guard citizens against the significant potential for disaster. Airport security is the process of protecting public transport by aircraft, as well as the terminals from which passengers of these aircraft arrive and depart. The growing attempts of terrorist attacks on aircraft from the mid-1970s through 2001 have provided the need for greater security. We will write a custom essay sample on Airport Security: Essential to Guard Citizens or any similar topic only for you Order Now The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, forced the government to create the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). Airport security has drawn the focus of the American public. With accounts of human error and various news reports of TSA failures to catch contraband items, the security debate draws a great deal of scrutiny from the public. There has been growing support for, and the eventual introduction of, full body scanners to improve the effectiveness of the security screeners. These scanners afford the TSA officers the technology to visually observe under the clothing of individuals entering the gate areas, making certain that there are no potential threats slipping through the security screening process. Checklist for Informational Essay 1. Does my introduction clearly state my thesis and give the reader an indication of the direction my essay will take? 2. Are my topic sentences and body paragraphs clear and well developed? 3. Have I fully supported my thesis with ample supporting details and examples? 4. Have I used a sufficient number and variety of sources in my paper? . Are all of my sources properly cited in the body of my paper according to MLA format? 6. Does my conclusion effectively summarize my main points and restate my thesis in different words? 7. Have I carefully proofread and revised my paper for sentence variety, word choice, grammar, and punctuation? 8. Does my Works Cited page include only the sources cited in the text? Is it correctly formatted? 9. Have I used the correct margins, line spacing, and other format issues required by the MLA sample essay and the sample provided by my instructor? Sources http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Airport_security https://www. cia. gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol50no3/airport_security_5. htm http://www. mlresearch. org/blog/job-search/394/airport-security-jobs-2 http://www. aviationnews. us/articles. php? art_id=13593start=1 http://academic-papers. blogspot. com/2009/01/airport-security. html http://blog. appleseedexpeditions. net/how-to-go-through-airport-security-with-student-travelers/ http://www. naturalnews. om/033054_airport_security_biking. html http://www. heritage. org/research/reports/2006/07/time-to-rethink-airport-security http://www. rbs2. com/travel. pdf (Good source) http://www. aclu. org/files/kyr/kyr_english_5. pdf (rights in airports) http://www. fas. org/sgp/crs/RL32670. pdf http://llr. lls. edu/docs/41-1kornblatt. pdf http://www. businessweek. com/technology/content/aug2006/tc20060810_208055. htm http://www. airport-int. com/news/future-airport-security-technolo gy-system-unveiled. html http://www. airport-technology. com/contractors/security/ How to cite Airport Security: Essential to Guard Citizens, Papers
Sunday, December 8, 2019
The intergenerational differences of the japanese canadian issei, nisei, and sansei free essay sample
In the wake of World War II, The Japanese Issei and Nisei both experienced extreme racial prejudices brought about by pre-existing anti-Asian racism and fear driven panic from the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and as a result became enemy aliens. However, pre-war intergenerational differences between the Japanese Canadian Issei and Nisei such as; traditional values, education, language, and age directly influenced the differences of the reactions that the Issei and Nisei had during the uprooting and internment of Japanese Canadians during World War II. The racism and prejudices against the Japanese Canadians can be traced back to when Japanese Immigrants first began to settle in Canada. This hatred was mainly triggered by the Canadians envy of the Japanese Canadians hard work, discipline, and contempt with the low pay and living standards that were pushed upon them.1 Many of the Japanese Canadian Issei spent an average of 30 years working as fisherman, small business owners, and farmers, and due to the looming racism were declared to be unable to assimilate into Canadian Society. 2 As a result Japanese Canadians Formed small communities in which they lived. Ken Adachi best summarizes the effects of this pre-war racism of the Japanese Canadians in this passage from his book The Enemy That Never Was: Canadian society all at once totally rejected the Japanese, confronted them with negative sanctions, and apparently doomed them and their Canadian born children to remain, in essence, a permantley alien, non-voting population. But at the same time, few immigrant Japanese wanted any part in the larger society.3 This passage helps explain why the Canadian-born Nisei children experienced the same prejudices as their Japanese-born parents despite the fact that they were Canadian-educated and had little if any to the Japanese way of life.4 It is important to note the generation differences that existed among the Canadian Japanese Issei and Nisei prior to World War II. The Japanese Canadian Issei continued to practice traditional Japanese values, ideals andÃ authoritarian parenting style in their adopted homeland. The Issei tried to pass these ideals down to their children, however the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in the Canadian school district had a greater influence on the Nisei children and pushed them away from the Japanese ideals of their parents, and towards that of the Western Cultures.5 In fact, the majority of Japanese Canadian Nisei and Sansei disliked the forced Japanese teachings so much that Muriel Kitagawa explained that when the three Japanese newspapers and Japanese schools shut down following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the Nisei and Sansei were overjoyed because they had more time to play6 Immediately following the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7 1942, the Canadian Government began the persecution and suspicion of all Japanese Canadians. On December 8 1942 the Royal Canadian Navy impounded 1,200 vessels owned by Japanese Nationals.7 The Issei willingly obliged to the confiscation despite the fact that their income relied on the vessels8. It is important to note that when the decision to evacuate all males of Japanese descent between the ages of 18 and 45 from the West Coast into the interior, there were only 5,000 of the 13,600 Nisei who were over twenty years of age.9 The effects of the evacuation, tore the Japanese community apart. As a result of the uprooting and incarcerations, Japanese schools and newspapers were shut down, which had a huge effect on the Japanese Canadian Issei because many had a very small knowledge of the English language so they relied on the Japanese newspapers for information on the war. After the shutdown of Japanese newspapers and the confiscation of radios and other communication devices, the Imprisoned Issei had little means of knowing what was going on, and mainly relied on circulating rumors. The effect of the uprooting and evacuation caused the Japanese Canadian Issei to be torn between their mother country Japan and their adopted country Canada. During this time many Issei chose to turn toward Japan for comfort and reacted to the expulsion by following their Japanese principles of cooperating with the Canadian Government, and accepted their punishment and had faith in Japans victory.10 This excerpt from the diary of Koichiro Miyazaki explains his feelings during expulsion, Ã¢â¬Å"We Japanese who are overseas, have been isolated in enemy countries and our families are scattered. But despite our hardships we believe that everything is for our native countrys future. This faithÃ keeps me going. I believe that I am not the only one filled with confidence.Ã¢â¬ 11 The Nisei generation had little to no traditional ties to their parents mother land Japan, and thought themselves to be completely Canadian. Many Nisei such as Muriel Kitagawa tried to maintain a positive outlook when the expulsion of Japanese Canadians first went into effect and tried to rationalize the Canadian Governments actions and had faith that they would protect the loyal Japanese Canadian Nisei.12 Like the Issei many Nisei encouraged Japanese Canadians to cooperate with the government, and have faith in the RCMP. However political and age differences within the Nisei society, caused some Nisei to react differently to the expulsion. Many younger Nisei tried to fight against the Canadian Government and refuse to obey. These Nisei experienced severe backlash from the Government and were immediately imprisoned or beaten.13 As the war continued the expulsion of the Japanese Canadians from the West Coast was no longer just for the men but now for people of all people of Japanese origin, including women and children. At this point the Canadian Government has full control over Japanese Canadians property and can sell it without the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s consent, and many Japanese Canadian families have been separated from the uprooting. On August 4 1944 Prime Minister King states that it is desirable that Japanese Canadians are dispersed across Canada. Applications for Ã¢â¬Å"voluntary reparationÃ¢â¬ to Japan are sought by the Canadian Government. Those who do not apply must move east of the Rockies to prove their loyalty to Canada. The Issei faced the difficult decision to apply for reparation and be back in their familiar homeland where some still had family, however the Issei who had been separated from their family during the expulsion faced the fear of their family being left behind to suffer in camps. Some Issei who chose to apply got their application denied and were forced to move across the Rockies, this caused many Issei to lose all hope of ever returning to Japan.14 The Nisei, even those who initially trusted the Canadian Government to take care of the loyal and innocent citizens, felt that they had been absolutely betrayed by the country that they loved. They were being forced to give up everything that they own and had worked soÃ hard for just to prove their loyalty to Canada. Some younger Nisei reacted to the move with an adventurous spirit, however many Nisei that had families of their own were faced with a very difficult decision with very uncertain outcomes.15 Muriel Kitagawa voices her concerns in a letter to her brother: And the Nisei, repudiated by the only land they know, no redress anywhere. Sure we can move somewhere on our own, but a job? Who will feed the family? Will they hire a Jap? Where can we go that will allow us to come? The only place to go is the Camp the Government will provide when it gets around to it. Ah, but we are bewildered and bitter and uncertain.16 The expulsion of the Japanese Canadians from the West Coast during World War II Shattered the strong communities that existed among both the Japanese Canadian Issei and Nisei. Hard-working people were fired from their jobs by employers that they had worked many loyal years for solely because of their race. The property that they worked for and and rightfully owned, could be taken away from them with as little as 24-hour notice, and sold by the Canadian Government without the need of consent from the owner. Families were torn apart and sent to camps where they were forced to work and live in harsh and extreme conditions. Despite the fact that both Japanese Canadian Issei and Nisei experienced these hardships as a result of the uprooting and expulsion during World War II, intergenerational differences such as traditional values, education, language and age, directly influenced the different and changing reactions that the Issei and Nisei had throughout their experience of expulsion fro m CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s west coast during World War II.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Medieval Weapons Medieval Weapons were (are) very dangerous. They Can kill, puncture, wound, hurt, or anything else. All weapons From the Middle Ages were looked upon as frightening and crucial Tools to kill. From a small dagger to a large cannon; all weapons Would kill, no doubt about it. A lot, in fact most of the weapons were used for siege and Defense against castles. Castles were the most integral part of the Middle Ages. They held the king, the servants and anyone else Important. If you wanted land or money, a castle was the perfect Place to hit. Movable Towers were just one thing used to lay siege on These castles. Not necessarily a weapon itself, it held Weapons...knights and peasants. Knights and (or) peasants carried many weapons depending On what specialty they had. Some carried bows-and-arrows, others Maces, some swords, some knifes, etc. A mace was a metal ball with metal spikes welded on the Ball. A chain was attached to a wood stick onto the ball. The Mace would not kill only torture. Other siege weapons included the ballista, a HUGE Crossbow- like slingshot that could send a huge tree trunk 3 football fields Long. The ballasta was manly for breaking down castle walls, or for scattering A heavily guarded area. The most commonly used weapon was the sword. It was a long metal Object that was very sharp on both sides. The sword could actually cut the Sheet metal on modern day cars. Imagine this power through your neck! Next to the sword, the "soldiers" held a small dagger in a pouch on Their belt. This was used to finish people off, as a last resort, or sometimes Even suicide missions. Trebuchet, the name strikes fear in people's eyes, a HUMONGOUS Slingshot that could send a big monkeys boulder 2 football fields. This Weapon could be used to demolish castle walls, or could even be used to kill Hundreds of people on the battlefield. Anyway used, it was a big dangerous Weapon. Medieval Warfare and Weaponry In the Middle Ages, the nobility of many cultures had large fortifications built to house a small town as well as themselves. These fortification were called castles, and they were so well defended that some historians have called it the most formidable weapon of medieval warfare (Hull 1). As one can imagine, conquering such a colossal structure cost much money, even more time, and many lives. There were three main ways to infiltrate a castle; each no more common than the other two. The first way to conquer to castle is known as the siege. In a siege, an army would bar passageways into the castle, and continue to pound away at the castle's defenses until it was vulnerable to a final attack. In this form of assault, the attacking party did not have to approach the castle, as was required in a storm, the second way to attack a castle. In a siege, large projectiles from catapults often bombarded the ramparts of the castle. Hunger, plague, or actual weapons such as Greek fire arrows killed off the defenders of the castle. Greek fire was a mixture comprised of highly flammable substances that was agonizingly hot. Bits of cloth were dipped into the Greek fire compound and wrapped it behind the head of an arrow, and then lit on fire. Yet another common tactic in the siege was undermining. Undermining was the digging of tunnels underneath towers. However, the purposes of such subt erranean activity were not for passage, but to create instability in the towers and in the end cause their disintegration. The second, more certain form of attack upon a castle was the blockade. To blockade a place was to preclude all entry and departure from the site. In doing so to a castle, one limited their food supply, for a castle, unlike a manor, could not survive unless contact with the outer world could be attained. However, starving a castle out was costly in both money and especially time. For a long while an army waited for the castle to deplete their resources, the army itself had to continue to supply themselves with such resources and the soldiers were to be paid for their vigilant act. Although it was costly and lengthy, blockade did work. Richard the Lionhearted's stronghold, the Chateau-Gaillard, which was built in only a year along the Seine River, was sacked on March 6, 1204 by
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Definition, Insights and Examples of Dramatic Irony Dramatic irony, also known as tragic irony, is an occasion in a play, film, or other work in which a characters words or actions convey a meaning unperceived by the character but understood by the audience. Nineteenth-century critic Connop Thirlwall is often credited with developing the modern notion of dramatic irony, although the concept is ancient and Thirwall himself never used the term.Ã Examples and Observations Dramatic irony is profoundly visible in works of tragedy; in fact, dramatic irony is sometimes equated with tragic irony. For example, in Sophocles Oedipus Rex, the audience clearly detects long before he does that Oedipus acts are tragic mistakes.Ã In theater, dramatic ironyÃ refers to a situation in which the audience has knowledge denied to one or more of the characters on stage. In the above example of dramatic irony, the audience is aware that a characters actions or words will Ã¢â¬â¹bring about his downfall long before the character realizes it.In A Series of Unfortunate Events: The Bad Beginning and the Reptile Room, Lemony Snicket says, Simply put, dramatic irony is when a person makes a harmless remark, and someone else who hears it knows something that makes the remark have a different, and usually unpleasant, meaning. For instance, if you were in a restaurant and said out loud, I cant wait to eat the veal marsala I ordered, and there were people around who knew that the veal marsala was poisoned and that you would die as soon as you took a bite, your situation would be one of dramatic irony. The function of dramatic irony is to sustain the readers interest, pique curiosity, and create a contrast between the situation of the characters and the episode that ultimately unfolds. This leads to the audience waiting in fear, anticipation, and hope, waiting for the moment when the character learns the truth behind the events of the story. Readers end up sympathizing with the main characters, hence the irony.In Francois Trauffauts Hitchcock, Alfred Hitchcock is quoted as saying, Let us suppose that there is a bomb underneath this table between us. Nothing happens, and then all of a sudden, Boom! There is an explosion. The public is surprised, but prior to this surprise, it has seen an absolutely ordinary scene, of no special consequence. Now, let us take a suspense situation. The bomb is underneath the table and the audience knows it, probably because they have seen the anarchist place it there. The public is aware that the bomb is going to explode at one oÃ¢â¬â¢clock and there is a clock in the decor. The public can see that it is a quarter to one. In these conditions, this same innocuous conversation becomes fascinating because the public is participating in the scene. The audience is longing to warn the characters on the screen: You shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be talking about such trivial matters. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a bomb beneath you and itÃ¢â¬â¢s about to explode! Also See IronySituational IronyVerbal IronyWhat Is Irony?
Friday, November 22, 2019
Conjugating Comer in Spanish Comer is a common Spanish verb to eat and has most of the meanings that the English verb has. Most commonly, comer means simply to consume food through the mouth: Me gusta comer pizza sin anchoas. I like to eat pizza without anchovies.El comer es uno de los placeres de la vida. Eating is one of the pleasures of life.Comieron en el aeropuerto de Lima antes de abordar el aviÃ ³n. They ate at the Lima airport before boarding the plane.Leah come como un pajarito. Leah eats like a bird. Sometimes, depending on the context, comer refers specifically to eating lunch or dinner. Desayunamos en casa y comemos en el camino. Were eating breakfast at home and eating lunch on the road. Like eat up, comer can be used colloquially to suggest immense pleasure: Mi abuela comiÃ ³ el libro. My grandmother ate up the book. Comer can be used figuratively to refer to corrosion, erosion or the eating up of something by natural processes. The translation varies with the context: El mar comiÃ ³ toda la arena. The sea washed away all the sand.El cido comiÃ ³ el concreto de la cisterna. The acid ate away at the tanks concrete. Similarly, the reflexive form comerse can be used in a variety of ways to indicate that something is swallowed up or otherwise consumed or missing: Ã ¿Cuntas pginas se comieron? How many pages were missing?Parece que se comiÃ ³ la letra N. It looks like the letter N was omitted.La inflaciÃ ³n se come el ahorro de la gente. Inflation is eating up the peoples savings. The reflexive form is also sometimes used to add emphasis. In such a case, the difference between comer and comerse is roughly the difference between to eat and to eat up. Los chicos se comieron todos los dulces. The boys ate up all the candy. Comer is conjugated regularly, following the pattern of beber.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
New Product to the Market (Timed Drink Dispenser) - Essay Example It is also cheap and hence affordable to most people all over the nation. Market segmentation involves marketing strategies that are used for classifying a broad market into subsets of consumers with similar needs for the product (Kotler 68). The specific characteristics of the product are divided into different categories of age, location and family size. The marketing strategies are designed to target specific customers. Segmenting helps in measurability, which is determining whether a particular segment is fit enough to be pursued. Accessibility is also a criteria in segmenting which entails reaching a given target group, where a region where people pay less attention is inaccessible. Demographic segmentation is also used to classify the market by dividing it into the variables of age, location and even family size. Demographic segmentation is great for segmenting customers into different groups, where customers are linked to the variables and segmented accordingly. Segmenting of the market involves dividing it into groups of consumers with similar wants. Consumer based market segmentation is performed on a specific product basis so as to create a close relationship between the consumers and the product. This demographic segmentation helps in identifying groups of similar consumers and the potential ones. ... The target market is mainly young people in the mid years since they may use the dispenser a lot in carrying alcohol and some types of beverages. Most youngsters prefer carrying beverages around and this dispenser is efficient for them since its pocket friendly, portable and can hold a lot of drinks. Most consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ preferences vary with age, in this case very young children may not see the essence of this dispenser but a bit older youngsters will know its importance. Psychographic segmentation is also essential since it helps to understand the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ lifestyle. Product positioning is the next step in product introduction after the target market has been identified. Positioning entails ascertaining a product and how the potential consumers view it. Segmenting helps in matching the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, reduces expenses, improves cash flows and improves productivity. To reach this group of customers, a lot of advertising is involved. Using demographic segmentation we target the young and also large families. With a family of six the dispenser can hold drinks to keep them going all day since the dispensers vary in size and one can get the required one. When considering the potential market for a new product, the size of the market is important since it determines the profit margins that will be gained from the product (Kotler 212). The target group should be stable since the product should be in the market long enough to break even. The potential customers should be easy to reach, that is promotions and distribution channels should reach them. The product can also be reached cost efficiently by the market intervention. The product has many benefits to the consumers since its cheap and readily available; it is portable by those going for picnics and
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Analytical - Essay Example The prosperity of a country, according to Han Fei, can be safeguarded only when the lawmakers and the law-keepers are strong and efficient. A king is not defined by his personal failings but by his ability to ensure the maintenance and applications of public laws. Along with a strong upper hand in dealing with public laws, he must also be ruthless in suppressing internal conspiracies and disputes, for a kingdom that is weak from within will always be an easy and constant target of the enemy clans. Intended Audience Having reviewed Han FeiÃ¢â¬â¢s political musings, drawn from Han Feizi, I think it is important to ascertain the intended audience at whom this particular tract was aimed. I believe, given the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s own politically charged background as well as exalted lineage, it can be safely said that much of his political strategies were drawn from personal experience and was intended to address the ruling class in particular. Reflections of the Author on Politics and Penal ties With great humanist emphasis on equality, he puts forward his thoughts on royal duties and legalities of the time. Han Fei, himself of royal descent, plainly spurns the unequal treatment often carried out by law keepers. He insists that there should be no unjust preferences given to the nobility. The common and the noble subject should all be treated as equal in the eyes of law. No one should try to gain favors by bribery or flattery. The guilty must be punished, and no offender should be allowed lenience, notwithstanding the exalted rank of the criminal or the humbleness of the victim. Lewdness and sexual excess must be suppressed as should internal discord and discontent. And according to Han Fei, the only way this can be achieved is by inculcating a deep fear of retribution within his subjects. The superiority of a ruler can be ascertained by the way he handles and controls his ministers and advisors. They may be negotiated only through two operative actions of the king: des erved adulation and acclaim upon great achievement or service; and severe punishment, torture and death upon defection or conspiracy. In conclusion, I believe, Han FeiÃ¢â¬â¢s legal philosophies seeks the better conditions of the masses even while advocating the most ruthless measures in ensuring the precedence of the sovereign ruler. Analysis of Ã¢â¬ËBe a ScribeÃ¢â¬â¢ Purpose of the Author Han Fei was a follower of the Great Historian Laozi, who countered the Confucian practice of the art of persuasive speech by placing vital emphasis on the art of writing instead. The post-Confucian legacy of LaoziÃ¢â¬â¢s creative and artistic philosophy reaches its fruitful zenith in the hands of Han Fei. It is told that Han Fei himself suffered from a speech impediment - an embarrassing stammer - that did not bode well for a career of oral mastery. Therefore, he was inclined, both by nature and by habit, to improve upon his calligraphy and immense gift of the written word and in his text, he intends his audience to do the same. In his instructive work, Be a Scribe, he begins with a direct address to the reader. He exhorts us to pursue the noble art of scripting, to eschew dancing and replace the sports and hunting with the finer activity of writing. The master then goes on to unfavorably compare the pursuit of Ã¢â¬Å"the scroll and the paletteÃ¢â¬
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Leadership and Management Paper Essay At a very young age, George Washington Carver took a strong grip on his destiny. This dynamic leader prevailed over getting born without a name into slavery, overcoming poverty, and prejudice to commit his life in helping others achieve a better livelihood. Through his actions, he was able to earn high levels of respect of self-worth, dignity, honor, and infinite achievement. Booker T. Washington was the first president and principal of the Tuskegee Institute in 1896. Booker T. Washington sent an invitation to George W. Carver to reside over the Agriculture Department. For 47 years Carver developed, taught, and applied constant research in working to develop several methods from using crop-based materials. Carver was the innovator of going green. Through his tenure he worked with two additional college presidents that supported the zealous work of Carver. His discovering and teaching methods of crop rotation while introducing several alternative money crops for farmers that simultaneously improving the soil of heavily cultivated cotton fields would motivate and inspire many Black students to follow suite in his techniques. (Kouzes Posner, 2009) Ã¢â¬Å"A leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s dynamic does not come from special powers. It comes from a strong belief in a purpose and a willingness to express that conviction.Ã¢â¬ In leadership, Carver designed a mobile classroom that brought education to the fields of the farmers. His so-called Ã¢â¬ËJesup wagonÃ¢â¬â¢ (named after Morris Ketchum Jesup), well honored for Mr. Jesup a philanthropist and New York financier fully supported and funded the program. Leadership functions Carver had many duties as an administrator, such as administer the Agriculture Experiment Station Farms. He manages the sale and production of farm products that generated revenues for the institute. His academic career as a teacher and researcher was stellar. What made Carver different from other professors and administrators is his determination to fulfill what he believed to be right. There were many times Booker T. Washington would voice his frustrations through letters to Carver because to the way he would administer his duties, Washington would always praise Carver for the great discoveries and hard work that has taken place. (G.W. Carver, 2011) Education is the key to unlock the golden door of opportunity.Ã¢â¬ This is how his leadership is different from the rest. He proves exactly what he stated to his life. His work became very high profile because of his more than 300 uses for peanuts, pecans, sweet potatoes and soybeans with the majority of his accomplishments of conquering the mundane. Every invention came after hours during peaceful nature walks, observing, and later testing in his laboratory. After Carver came to success, he did not cite ingenuity, though he was very blessed with it. On the contrary, he remarked that 99% of the failures come about people who have the habit of making excuses. Carver also well notes that, Ã¢â¬Å"When you do the common things in life in an uncommon way, you will command the attention of the worldÃ¢â¬ pg. 143 of Frontage Magazine. Obstacles George W. Carver is someone whom many can only look up too when problems come into our lives for comparison sake. Carver beats the odds so well that his name should never had been heard of. His mission, determination, and story defy the odds. Being born into slavery a raider kidnapped him as an infant, and was not expected to live past the age of 21 because of poor health and being a Black scientist in the harsh times of racial segregation is beyond the norm. After the death of Carver, the United States Government erected the first national monument to honor someone other that a president. Effective Leader Ã¢â¬â Common Measures George W. Carver was best known in his time as a man of faith who believes in God as science as a gift from God. He would constantly acknowledge that his work was inspired by the works of God and GodÃ¢â¬â¢s inspiring, and guiding him in his work. When those who wanted things from Carver such as hisÃ secrets without the desire to work for the knowledge, Carvers replay would be, Ã¢â¬ËGod refuses to reveal the secrets of the humankind and the universe. Within the readings and teachings of the text, Carver proves his effective leadership skills for success present. To be a leader whom everyone will want to immolate, it takes the extraordinary levels of strong will, determination, someone who can listen and follow, and the ability effectively to move those whom you lead in a positive direction fostering a successful outcome. Conclusion CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s faith was his concern of character that his students whom he regularly taught would follow a set of cardinal virtues: Ã¢â" Do not look up the rich nor down to the poor Ã¢â" Be clean both inside and out Ã¢â" Win without bragging Ã¢â" Lose if needed but without squealing Ã¢â" Be too brave to lie Ã¢â" Always be considerate of women, children, and other people Ã¢â" Be too generous to cheat Ã¢â" Take your share of the world and let others take theirs. The world needs more women and men like George Washington Carver Ã¢â¬â people who cannot complain, strive hard and overcome adversity while focusing on the finish line ahead. Everyone does not possess the skill and knowledge of George Washington Carver but he has left us a milestone of character traits that can allow us to use as a guide while striving to achieve our goals here in this life. I like what Langston Hughes states on page 159 of Through the Fire, Ã¢â¬Å"Hold fast to dreams, for it dreams die, life is a broken-winged bird that cannot fly.Ã¢â¬ This goes back to how George Washington Carver spoke about excuses; they are just that, an excuse to fail. Live right, stay positive, follow the plan, persevere, and finish the race, you will for sure win. References Carver, G. W. (2011). Greatest Leaders of America History. Frontage Magazine, 32(4), 112 113. p.113 Kauzes, J., Posner, B. (2009, April). See what today will bring when you are done thinking. Whole and Complete Places, 8(13), 78 -84. p.83 Livingstrom, J. T. (1974). Through the Fire (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Harper Collins. p.154
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Huck Finn and Oppressive Societies The world in which we live in now is much less oppressive than say the world lived in the middle of the 1800's. Up until the Civil War, the South depended on their 'peculiar institution' of slavery, in order to be productive a successful. Most people believed slavery was not wrong, but those who thought otherwise seldom tried to alter it. In general if surrounded by oppressive environment, one does not usually try to make a difference in that world. This is because people are afraid to defend what is right against a whole mass of people who believe otherwise. Huck Finn in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Billy Budd in Billy Budd, and Frederick Douglass in his autobiography all portray individuals who because of their good, innocent qualities go up against the oppression in their society. Living in an oppressive society does not always draw you to do the wrong thing you are still capable of generating change, whether it be for a certain individual or against a whole mass of people. Billy Budd starts off on the ship the "Rights of Man", Melville obviously showing his intent in the naming of the first ship. This shows that on this ship where Billy wanted to be and chose to be he had rights. That he and the other crew had choices of what to do and how to be. Then along comes the British navy and decides that they are going to take Billy aboard their ship "Power of War". This is when Billy is brought into an oppressive society. This is the navy and wartime during which rules must be followed as well as a lifestyle that must be followed. Billy is a poor innocent boy with a childish stutter. This stutter shows Billy's humane side, a flaw, as well as leading you to the thinking that he has the innocence of a child. This stutter is connected to innocence because of its childish qualities. When most children begin speaking they have some sort of stutter, which usually goes away. The stutter parallels innocence because it is showing that you are just learning how to talk and don't really comprehend the correct way to make sounds, as you grow older you learn and the stutter disappears.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Case Here we use the Thompson Lumber Company case as an example to illustrate these decision theory steps. John Thompson is the founder and president of Thompson Lumber Company, a profitable firm located in Portland, Oregon. Step 1 The problem that John Thompson identifies is whether to expand his product line by manufacturing and marketing a new product, backyard storage sheds. Step 2 * The second step is to list the alternative. * ThompsonÃ¢â¬â¢s second step is to generate alternatives that are available to him .In decision theory the alternative is a course of action or strategy that the decision maker can choose .According to him his alternatives are to construct: 1Ã¢â¬ ¢ a large new plant to manufacture the storage sheds 2Ã¢â¬ ¢ a small plant, or 3Ã¢â¬ ¢ no plant at all * So, the decision makers should try to make all possible alternatives ,on some occasion even the least important alternative might turn out to be the best choice. Step 3 * Third step is to identify possible outcomes. * The criteria for action are established at this time. According to Thompson there are two possible outcomes: the market for the storage sheds could be favorable means there is a high demand of the product or it could be unfavorable means that there is low demand of the product. * Optimistic decision makers tend to ignore bad outcomes; where as pessimistic managers may discount a favorable outcome. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t consider all possibilities, it will be difficult to make a logical decision, and the result may be undesirable. * There may be some outcomes over which the decision maker has little or no control is known as states of nature. Step 4 * Fourth step is to list payoffs. * This step is to list payoff resulting from each possible combination of alternatives and outcomes. Because in this case he wants to maximize his profits, he use profits to evaluate each consequences .Not every decision, of course, can be based on money alone Ã¢â¬â any appropriate means of measuring benefit is acceptable. In decision theory we call such payoff or profits conditional values. Step 5 & 6 * The last two steps are to select and apply the decision theory model. * Apply it to the data to help make the decision. Selecting the model depends on the environment in which you are operating and the amount of risk and uncertainty involved. * Decision Table with condition values for Thompson TYPES OF DECISION MAKING ENVIRONMENTS * The types of decisions people make depends on how much knowledge or information they have about the situation. There are three kind of decision making environments: * Decision making under certainty. * Decision making under risk. * Decision making under uncertainty. Decision Making Under Certainty * Here the decision makers know about the certainty of consequences every alternative or decision choice has. * Naturally they will choose the alternative that will result in the best outcome. * Example: LetÃ¢â¬â¢s say that you have $10000 to invest for a period of one year. And you have two alternatives either to open a savings account paying 6% interest and another is investing in Govt. Treasury Bond paying 10% interest. If both the investments are secure and guaranteed, the best alternative is to choose the second investment option to gain maximum profit. Decision Making Under Risk * Here the decision Maker knows about the several possible outcomes for each alternative and the probability of occurrence of each outcome. * Example: The probability of being dealt a club is 0.25. The probability of rolling a 5 on die is 1/6. * In the decision making under risk, the decision maker usually attempts to maximize his or her expected well being. Decision theory models for business problems in this in this environment typically employ two equivalent criteria: maximization of expected monetary value and minimization of expected loss. * Expected monetary value is the weighted value of possible payoffs for each alternative Decision Making under Uncertainty * Here there are several outcomes for each alternative, and the decision maker does not know the probabilities occurrences of various outcomes. * Example The probability that a Democrat/Republican will be the President of a country 25 Years from now is not known. * The criteria that is covered in this section as follows: 1 Ã¢â¬â Maximax Ã¢â¬ ¢ this criterion find the alternative that maximizes the maximum payoffs or consequence for every alternative. Here we first locate the maximum payoff with every alternative and then pick that alternative with the maximum number. This is also known as optimistic decision criterion. * Maximin Ã¢â¬ ¢ this criterion finds the alternative that maximizes the minimum payoff or consequence for every alternative. Here we first locate the minimum outcome within every alternative and then pick that alternative with maximum number. This is called as pessimistic decision criterion. * Criterion of Realism: Also called as weighted average, is a compromise between an optimistic and a pessimistic decision. Let the coefficient of realism is Ã¢â¬ËaÃ¢â¬â¢ selected. The coefficient is between 0 and 1. When Ã¢â¬ËaÃ¢â¬â¢ is close to 1, the decision maker is optimistic about the future. When Ã¢â¬ËaÃ¢â¬â¢ is close Ã¢â¬Ë0Ã¢â¬â¢ the decision maker is pessimistic. It helps the decision maker to build feelings about relative optimism and pessimism. * Weighted average =a (maximum in row) + (1-a)(minimum in row). * Equally likely (Laplace)-one criterion that uses all the payoffs for each alternative is the equally likely also called Laplace decision criterion. This is to fi nd alternative with highest payoff. * Minimax Regret Ã¢â¬ ¢ the final decision criterion that we discuss is based on opportunity loss or regret. Expected Value of Perfect Information * Formula EVPI = A Ã¢â¬â B A = expected value with perfect information B = expected value without perfect information Calculation of (A) value: A = the best of each outcome x their prob. The best of outcomes: Best outcome= (100,000) (30,000) A= 0.6 x 100,000 + 0.4 x 30,000 = 72,000 Calculation of (B) value: B = we select the max value of each given below Outcome of each event: 0.6(50000) + 0.4 (30,000)= 42,000 0.6(100,000 -0.4(40,000)= 44,000 0.6(30,000) + 0.4(10,000)= 20,000 The max value for all computed value = 44,000 EVPI = A Ã¢â¬â B = 72,000 Ã¢â¬â 44,000 = 28,000 Expected Opportunity Loss The expected opportunity loss is the expected value of the regret for each decision (Minimax) EOL (Apartment) = $50,000(.6) + 0(.4) = 30,000 EOL (Office) = $0(.6) + 70,000(.4) = 28,000 EOL (Warehouse) = $70,000(.6) + 20,000(.4) = 50,000 Marginal Analysis * Most of our decisions are made following our Ã¢â¬Å"marginal analysisÃ¢â¬ of costs and benefits * To achieve a given outcome we often have to make a choice from among alternative means; we normally try to make the Ã¢â¬Å"least costlyÃ¢â¬ choice among the available means * Sometimes our decisions result in benefits as well as costs; * How much food should you buy? * How many years of schooling should you have? * How many hours should you work? * How many workers should you hire? * How much should save/invest?
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Argumentative essay assignments are useful learning tools for helping students to both understand key concepts and in helping students to think critically. Ã¢â¬ Module 3 Case Assignment Nassal R. Braimbridge Trident University If you have ever attended college at some point you have had to write an argumentative essay. It is used to convey your thoughts, insights, and point of view to an audience in an attempt to persuade them. Extensive research is required to provide the facts and evidence required to support your argument and diminish your oppositionÃ¢â¬â¢s argument. Argumentative essay assignments are useful tools for helping students to both understand key concepts and in helping students to think critically. This is due to the fact that creating an argumentative essay requires a lot of thinking and analysis. When most people think of an argument, it is thought of as a being something negative but according to David H. Jonassen and Bosung Kim (2010) Ã¢â¬Å"Meaningful learning requires deep engagement with ideas. Deep Engagement is supported by the critical thinking skills of argumentation. Ã¢â¬â¢ They also stated that Ã¢â¬Å"Learning to argue represents an important way of thinking that facilitates conceptual change and is essential for problem solving. Ã¢â¬ This is impart to the fact that you are using the art of persuasion, rhetoric to sell your point of view to the reader, which requires a substantial amount of facts and evidence to validate your claims and enhance the level of trust that the reader has for both you and your opinion. A well written argumentative essay will present a strong claim and can appeal to the most resistant audience. This is achieved with the application of logic, reasoning and strategic analysis. In depth research coupled with a little creativity and some confidence are also necessary. In doing this you develop critical thinking skills which is defined by Michael Scriven and Richard Paul (1987) as Ã¢â¬Å"the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. They also stated that Ã¢â¬Å"In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness. Ã¢â¬ One of the functions of higher education is to teach students how to think and a god way to do this is through argumentation. Debate as a teaching tool, has a place in pedagogical methods because it allows students to enhance critical thinking through investigating arguments, engaging in research, gathering information, performing analysis, assessing arguments, questioning assumptions, and demonstrating interpersonal skills. Initially, the researcher used debate in a Science, Technology, and Society course as a tool to introduce an experimental learning opportunity. The main objective of the course was to use a selection of modern topics in science and technology to increase communication and critical thinking. Debate was a natural fit for the course because the topic were tied to current events, and students were allowed to critically analyze a controversial topic while practicing other competencies like writing, presenting information and higher level thinking (Scott, S. 2009). Writing an argumentative essay also helps to improve conceptual understanding, as you have to put yourself in not only the shoes of your opponent but the shoes of your audience as well. This means anticipating any questions or concerns they might express and addressing them, it also gives you the opportunity to refute any arguments your opponent may have. In doing this you will be analyzing your supporting statements, determining the reason why someone would disagree with each point and what part of the issue concerns them the most. At the same time is also developing your solving skills as you trouble shoot problem before they occur and prepare for them. Argumentative essay assignments are useful learning useful learning tools. They foster the development of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ critical thinking skills their conceptual understanding and problem solving abilities. It promotes creativity and confidence while improving studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ writing skills. A studentÃ¢â¬â¢s rhetorical skills are also developed along with their presentation skills when they complete argumentative essay assignments. Work Cited Jonassen, D. , Kim, B. , (2010). Arguing to learn and learning to argue: design justifications and guidelines. Educational Technology Research ; Development. 58(4). 39-458. Scott, S. (2009). Perceptions of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning critical thinking through debate in a technology classroom: A case study. Journal of Technology Studies. 34(1): 39-45. Michael Scriven, Richard Paul (1987). Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking. Retrieved from: http://www. criticalthinking. org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766 Purdue Online Writing Lab (2011). Argumentative Essay. Retrieved from: http://owl. english. purdue. edu/owl/resource/685/05/
Thursday, November 7, 2019
250 Million Years of Turtle Evolution In a way, turtle evolution is an easy story to follow: the basic turtle body plan arose very early in the history of life (during the late Triassic period), and has persisted pretty much unchanged down to the present day, with the usual variations in size, habitat, and ornamentation. As with most other types of animals, though, the turtle evolutionary tree includes its share of missing links (some identified, some not), false starts, and short-lived episodes of gigantism. Turtles That Werent: Placodonts of the Triassic Period Before discussing the evolution of genuine turtles, its important to say a few words about convergent evolution: the tendency of creatures that inhabit roughly the same ecosystems to develop roughly the same body plans. As you probably already know, the theme of squat, stubby-legged, slow-moving animal with a big, hard shell to defend itself against predators has been repeated numerous times throughout history: witness dinosaurs like Ankylosaurus and Euoplocephalus and giant Pleistocene mammals like Glyptodon and Doedicurus. This brings us to the placodonts, an obscure family of Triassic reptiles closely related to the plesiosaurs and pliosaurs of the Mesozoic Era. The poster genus for this group, Placodus, was an unremarkable-looking creature that spent most of its time on land, but some of its marine relativesincluding Henodus, Placochelys, and Psephodermalooked uncannily like genuine turtles, with their stubby heads and legs, hard shells, and tough, sometimes toothless beaks. These marine reptiles were as close as you could get to turtles without actually being turtles; sadly, they went extinct as a group about 200 million years ago. The First Turtles Paleontologists still havent identified the exact family of prehistoric reptiles that spawned modern turtles and tortoises, but they do know one thing: it wasnt the placodonts. Lately, the bulk of the evidence points to an ancestral role for Eunotosaurus, a late Permian reptile whose wide, elongated ribs curved over its back (a striking adumbration of the hard shells of later turtles). Eunotosaurus itself seems to have been a pareiasaur, an obscure family of ancient reptiles the most notable member of which was the (completely unshelled) Scutosaurus. Until recently, fossil evidence linking the land-dwelling Eunotosaurus and the giant, marine turtles of the late Cretaceous period was sorely lacking. That all changed in 2008 with two major discoveries: first up was the late Jurassic, western European Eileanchelys, touted by researchers as the earliest marine turtle yet identified. Unfortunately, only a few weeks later, Chinese paleontologists announced the discovery of Odontochelys, which lived a whopping 50 million years earlier. Crucially, this soft-shelled marine turtle possessed a full set of teeth, which subsequent turtles gradually shed over tens of millions of years of evolution. (A new development as of June 2015: researchers have identified a late Triassic proto-turtle, Pappochelys, that was intermediate in form between Eunotosaurus and Odontochelys and thus fills an important gap in the fossil record!) Odontochelys prowled the shallow waters of eastern Asia about 220 million years ago; another important prehistoric turtle, Proganochelys, pops up in the western European fossil record about 10 million years later. This much bigger turtle had fewer teeth than Odontochelys, and the prominent spikes on its neck meant that it couldnt fully retract its head under its shell (it also possessedÃ an ankylosaur-like clubbed tail). Most important, the carapace of Proganochelys was fully baked: hard, snug and pretty much impervious to hungry predators. The Giant Turtles of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras By the early Jurassic period, about 200 million years ago, prehistoric turtles and tortoises were pretty much locked into their modern body plans, though there was still room for innovation. The most notable turtles of the Cretaceous period were a pair of marine giants, Archelon and Protostega, both measuring about 10 feet long from head to tail and weighing about two tons. As you might expect, these giant turtles were equipped with broad, powerful front flippers, the better to propel their bulk through the water; their closest living relative is the much smaller (less than one ton) Leatherback. You have to fast-forward about 60 million years, to the Pleistocene epoch, to find prehistoric turtles that approached the size of this duo (this doesnt mean thatÃ giant turtles werent around in the intervening years, just that we havent found much evidence). The one-ton, southern Asian Colossochelys (formerly classified as a species of Testudo) can pretty much be described as a plus-sized Galapagos tortoise, while the slightly smaller Meiolania from Australia improved on the basic turtle body plan with a spiked tail and a huge, weirdly armored head. (By the way, Meiolania received its nameGreek for little wandererin reference to the contemporary Megalania, a two-ton monitor lizard.) The turtles mentioned above all belong to the cryptodire family, which accounts for the vast majority of marine and terrestrial species. But no discussion about prehistoric turtles would be complete without a mention of the aptly named Stupendemys, a two-ton pleurodire turtle of Pleistocene South America (what distinguishes pleurodire from cryptodire turtles is that they pull their heads into their shells with a sideways, rather than a front-to-back, motion). Stupendemys was far and away the largest freshwater turtle that ever lived; most modern side-necks weigh about 20 pounds, max! And while were on the subject, lets not forget the comparably ginormous Carbonemys, which may have done battle with the giant prehistoric snake Titanoboa 60 million years ago in the swamps of South America.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
How To Rediscover The Joy Of Writing How To Rediscover The Joy Of Writing How To Rediscover The Joy Of Writing By Sharon Most people get into the writing business because they love to write. In fact, they cant imagine doing anything else. However, when you write for a living, you may sometimes feel as if youre writing by rote and as if the joy of writing has completely evaporated. Almost every freelance writer that I know has experienced this at least once. Its time to do something about it before the joy disappears completely. Here are some of the steps that I take. Sometimes it helps to step away from the computer. When you spend most of every day there, its no surprise that you might feel a bit stale from time to time. I find exercise very helpful in clearing my brain, so I go for a walk or if I really want to torture myself take a spin class. Reading has always been one of my favorite forms of relaxation. When youre trying to refresh your ideas, the trick is to read something completely different. When Im relaxing, I almost never read about mortgages or loans. Instead, I pick up a good biography or a trashy novel and lose myself in someone elses life. Its amazing how many good ideas you can get by doing that. The best writing appeals to people. If you work at home, you may not meet many people, but you can still find out what they think. Watch some daytime TV or get out there and talk to your friends. When you distract your brain from the subject at hand, then theres lots of room for ideas to flood in. Write for fun. For me, this is one way of recharging my batteries. Instead of working on an ebook or an article about property, I can experiment with a short story or a poem. Turning my thoughts in a different direction can flick a mental switch and get the creative juices flowing again. Take a challenge. Theres always a writing challenge going on urging you to talk about your successes, give writing tips, satirize a famous writer, write a piece of flash fiction or another form of writing. These give writers the chance to try something new. At worst, it makes a change. At best, writers will discover another form of writing that they love, and find the joy of writing again. These are some of the steps that have worked for me. I do have off days, but I still love what I do. What works for you when youre feeling burned out? Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Freelance Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:35 Synonyms for Ã¢â¬Å"LookÃ¢â¬ Confusing "Passed" with "Past"How to Treat Names of Groups and Organizations
Saturday, November 2, 2019
The socail responsibility of business is to increase its profit - Essay Example Social responsibility of a business means the responsibilities which the business must undertake for the betterment of the society. These are the policies and programmes which a business must pursue for the general upliftment of the society. The business must be concerned about the welfare of their customers, employees and the society on the whole.The idea behind assuming social responsibility by the business is to help for the rapid development of the society besides increasing the profits of the business. In the ancient times the businesses were concerned only about increasing the profits. But the modern business has to undertake certain social responsibilities also. The difference between traditional business and modern business is that the former is concerned only about economic and technical objectives while the latter extends it to social responsibilities as well.There are various authors who have supported the idea of assuming social responsibilities by the business. On the ot her hand some authors feel that the question of assuming social responsibility by the business falls outside the scope of business. Milton Friedmen is of this view.According to Friedmen the political principal capitalism will be affected if the business assumes social responsibility. In a capitalist economy the business firm has the complete freedom of using its available resources in a manner it wants. But if the business firms are compelled to assume social responsibility the political principle of capitalism will be violated.... The owners will have main objective of maximising the profit. Therefore the managers have no right to direct the resources of the firm for any other purpose other than for the purpose of increasing the profits. There are various constraints which blocks a manager from assuming social responsibility. The corporate managers are trained to increase the profits and they do not have any idea about the manner in which they can improve social well-being of the people. Milton Friedmen feels that the principle of taxation would be violated if the business undertakes social responsibility, because the business will be using the money of the people for undertaking some measures for the betterment of the society. And this is similar to the taxes imposed by the government. The taxes imposed by the government and the money which the business use for undertaking social responsibility are similar because both the government and the business are using the money of the citizens for the benefit of the society. The government asks taxes from the public only for undertaking some social functions. And the right of taxes is given only to the government. So the business has no right to take money from the public for undertaking social works. If the people feel that they should contribute something for the betterment of the society they can use their own resources for undertaking these works. Friedmen believes that if we bring the concept of social responsibilities into the business it will amount to bringing socialism into the business which will be against the principle of capitalism or a free-enterprise economy. In a free enterprise economy the business firm has full freedom to use the available resources of the economy for maximising the profits. Only in a socialist
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Accelerating Sales Force - Essay Example Unprofessionally hired, oversized, undersized or uneducated sales forces will cast augmented detrimental effects on any business because the presentation of the product is decisive when it comes to the market penetration and selling. A customer will decide to choose or leave the product based on the analysis of the product within few minutes. This time should be exploited in an optimal way to ensure the sale of the product and this job is done by the sales force. Seemingly, sales force might be considered among the lowest ranks in the organization hierarchies but technically, it is the most important sector in any business or organizational that decides the overall course of proceedings for the business. In order to ensure the success and increase of sales of any business, the sales force must be sized ideally and within the alignment of the organizational norms and standards. The sales force is said to be oversized when the customers see a rush of sales persons around them doing nothing. This is giving the glimpse that the sales people are sitting idle and they have nothing to do in the workplace. The oversized sales force will cause depletion of the economic resources of the organization.... This relationship is depicted in the figure below. It also says that time spent by each sales person on the customer is directly proportional to the profit or sales. (Zoltners,2001) Carryover factor has also a very important role to play. For example a customer comes to buy a product which is of high quality and very expensive. The efforts of sale person at that time will be a deciding factor for the future. If next time the same customer will come and there will be an undersized sales force at the same workplace, not much slashes in the sales will occur because the imprinting effects has been made at the first impression time. Cost containment approach is not good to follow if the company wants to plan long term profitability index increasing plans. For example a profit maximization approach allocating a 14% sales force expense of total sales will be better for a business than downsizing of sales persons. Efficient sizing and increasing of sales force promises profitability to the b usiness. Similarly gradual downsizing and step wise hiring is also harmful to the company because if the company will hire the individuals for the sales force step by step, extra cost will be exhausted in their training session, allowances etc. Increasing and focusing on the sales departments have a key role to play in achieving colossal milestones in the companies. For example if a company wants to achieve a big sales goal for the current year then they should definitely and immediately increase the sales force size (Zoltners et al, 2001). The sales force structures play a paramount role in fulfilling the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs which in turn produce benefits and strong customer relationships. The
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Service recovery - Essay Example The first thing that a service provider should do is take the whole responsibility for the breakdown (hope and Muhlemann). For example, instead of saying, Ã¢â¬Å"It was not our faultÃ¢â¬ , he should say, Ã¢â¬Å"We are sorry and we shall see what we can do.Ã¢â¬ Apologies are a very important part of system recovery. He should make the customer feel that he is being understood and will be attended. Next, he should take immediate actions to solve the problem, and should call back the customer every now and then so that he does not feel that he is being kept waiting. If the client is too hard, the provider can use sentences like, Ã¢â¬Å"What can we do to make you comfortable?Ã¢â¬ How a provider deals with a difficult client is very important for a successful service recovery. A follow up call is very central after the system has been recovered to help maintain the stability of the relationship with the client. Works Cited Fitzsimmons, James A., and Mona J. Fitzsimmons. Service Ma nagement: Operations, Strategy, and Information Technology. USA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2006. Hope, Christine, and Alan Muhlemann. Service Operations Management: Strategy, Design, and Delivery. USA: Prentice Hall, 1997.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
The National Curriculum In Primary Schools The aim of this assignment is to discuss the trends policy that took place in primary education from 1988 and 1997. The assignment will start with examining the rationale behind the changes introduced in those years. Then it will look at the changes themselves. The last section will talk about the advantages and disadvantages of those changes. It should be mentioned from the outset that I will not be mentioning reforms related to secondary and higher education, even though they came at the same time as the Primary schools. The term educational provision refers to the use of the equipment or tools with the intention of providing knowledge and skills, and includes things such as such as, classroom, textbook, chairs, pens/pencils and many more for students. Education is about the process of learning where knowledge, skills and information is transmitted. Yero (2002) believes that education is a procedure of improving the students or pupils knowledge, skills and character. So education can help to reduce inequality in society. In the United Kingdom, this concept of eliminating inequality was at the base of changes in education policy. Prior to 1988, education in the United Kingdom was completely different. The decision of the curriculum contents was in the hands of schools, with religious education being the only subject which was compulsory. This means that pupils had different attainment levels due to following different programmes. Education was ruled by the 1944 Education Act which handed the administration of schools and the formulation of school policies to local authorities; the only exception being Section 1 where control and direction of education were given to the Secretary of State. In fact, in the 1944 Education Act, the role of the Department of Education and Science was simply promotional and not one of giving direction, which means they could not supervise local authorities policies. This Act also fixed the age of leaving school at 15 and instituted free secondary education for all pupils. However it was noticed that the standard attained in basic skills by the UK population was low and poor compared to other European countries, and this could not satisfy the country national economic needs (Department of Education, 2011). To solve the problem raised by the falling standard, the Conservative Government came with the 1988 Education Act, sometimes referred to as the Kennet Baker reform which instituted a standardisation of all school programmes, and brought four main changes with a view to bringing back the level (Young, 2008). The first change was the introduction of the National Curriculum, which defines four Key Stages, moving from Key Stage 1 to Key Stage 4. In primary schools, two Key Stages, 1 and 2 were identified: Key Stage 1 for Year 1 and 2 up to age 7; Key Stage 2 for Years 3 to 6, meaning age 7 to age 11. Later on, a Foundation Stage which concerns children aged 3 up to reception year was introduced. The National Curriculum came with a new terminology related to two types of school subjects, core subjects and Foundation subjects. In Primary schools, that is Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2, the curriculum consists of the following subjects: English, Maths, science, information and communication technology (ICT), history, geography, art and design, music, design and technology (DT) and Physical Education. This was supplemented by the literacy and numeracy reforms in the 1990s taught everyday to improve children standard in those skills. Another change in the curriculum was the introduction foreign languages for children aged 7. This curriculum was later reconsidered for improvement. One advantage of National Curriculum is that all children in England and Wales have the same education programmes, and this makes comparison of levels easier and the transfer of children from one school to another is made easy. Actually the national Curriculum contains all the topics to be taught, in terms of knowledge, skills and expectations at the end of each key stage; it also determines how assessment has to proceed. The second change had to do with assessment of pupils. Here national standard tests such as SATs at age 11 (Standard Assessment tasks, and later Standard Attainment Tasks) were put in place, not only to assess whether they are up to the national standard expected, but also to put strategies in place to ensure improvement in those children learning. This led to the National Curriculum Council (NCC) as an advisory service to the secretary of State in matters related to the curriculum, and the School Examinations and Assessment Council (SEAC) in charge of assessments. The third change affected the administration of schools. As mentioned above, prior to 1988, Education administration was handled by local authorities. In London, for example it was in the hands of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA), which was created in 1965, while outer London schools were directed by county councils and borough councils. The Education Reform Act of 1988 gave power to schools to opt out of local authority control and be funded by central government, so that schools could manage their own finances. The Local management of Schools meant that the role of head teachers included budget management as well (Powell and Edwards, 2003). This was the beginning of Grant maintained schools, which were later replaced by foundation schools. This led to the abolition of the Local Education Authority. The forth change concerned the creation of a league table where people could go and compare the performance of different schools. It was hoped that such a table would push schools to compete, and therefore provide better education to children. In 1993, another education act came into place. It aimed at increasing the number of Grant Maintained Schools; it replaced the NCC and SEAC with School Curriculum and Assessment Authority so that the curriculum content could be controlled by the government; more power was given to headteacher in their exclusion decisions of unruly pupils; changes were introduced for pupils with special educational needs; and the establishment of referral units. An inspection body called Ofsted came into existence to inspect schools in LEAS. Finally the SCAA and NCVQ formed the QCA. In 1997, the Labour Government introduced another reform. The Government introduced specialist schools such as Business, Sport schools so as to diversify education and the types of schools. So doing parents could have a variety of choices to make for their children. Failing schools were reopened under academies administered by churches or businesses. In deprived areas, the Government created Education Action zone in order to help improve education standard in those areas. Parents were given power and a voice to decide on the choice of schools for their children; they were given power to be represented in the school governing body. Further, a system of exam league table was introduced where parents could easily spot schools that are doing well, and those falling behind. Be it as it may, parents had the duty to ensure that their children attend schools. School funding was linked to the number of pupils a school had in its roll. The implication was that schools had to compete to improve their performance so as to attract parents and their children, and thus good funding as well. This is termed the market reform introduced by Conservative governments in the 1980s and 1990s, where schools were seen as a service and the parents and children as the clients. As a matter fact, education should provide valued forms of knowledge and equip children for life (James and Pollard, 2012) In the 1997 White Paper, Excellence in Schools, the rights of parents to information were extended including sending them the child progress annual report, their part in the inspection process, annual meeting, allowing them to have access to the childs school record. Schools were further obliged to publish an annual report about their management and a prospectus. Teachers were also given power to restrain pupils By so, doing the government, say the Department of Education gained new power, because they are in charge of the school curriculum, not the local authorities any more, the types of tests to administer to pupils, the types of qualifications to be awarded, the funding to give to schools, the nomination of members of the National Curriculum Council to plan the curriculum. The approval of schools that want to opt out, the change of school status is given by the State Secretary, even though the involvement of parents should be sought for. He has the administration of grants. The role of head teachers also changed as they became budget managers as well. The question one might ask at this point is to know whether those reforms were successful. Two views can be expressed here. On the one hand, the introduction of the national Curriculum should be appreciated, because it helps to have children expected to have the same knowledge and skills. The tests would help schools to work hard to improve their results, and research has revealed that more people are now going to university. The league table gives a better view to parents as to which school is doing better, so make an informed choice of schools for their children. On the other hand, it would appear that testing is not good enough to assess the performance of schools, and learning should not be limited to passing tests. With the league table, teaching has turned into preparing pupils to pass exams, and not a preparation for life. The league table has also been criticised as it ignores some areas such as Art and sport. Further, the league tables make some schools more popular than oth ers, and this raises difficulties for some parents to get a school of their choice for their children. Ball (2006) examined the concepts of markets in the context of education only to find that more needs to be discussed, and that such concepts as competition, supply and demand, producer and consumer behaviour, privatisation and commodification, values and ethics and distributional outcomes should be addresses as there is a paucity of research in this field. In Primary schools, teachers complained of the increased workload imposed by the National Curriculum, especially at the end of Key Stage 2 with the preparation of SATs, and this lead to Dearing Report which brought the load down by 20% (Alexander, 2012). The system of inspection also came into fire by various teachers unions who find the Ofsted as a problem, not a solution. Another problem concerned the introduction of foreign language teaching at age 7. This raised problems in a country such as the United kingdom where secondary schools teach various languages, French, German, Spanish. So a child could learn one language in primary school and have a different language in secondary schools. This means there will be no continuity as noted by the Guardian (2012). The structure of Key Stage 2 has also been criticized as it takes four years which the Framework for the National Curriculum found too long (DE, 2011). To conclude, it can be said that there have been one main Education reform Act, the 1988, and many education acts from 1988 to 1997. The changes in educational policies in those reforms can be regrouped in three categories: changes to do with centralisation, as education moved from local authorities to the government with the introduction of the National Curriculum; assessment by outcomes with the use of national assessment and the establishment of league-tables to compare the performance of different schools, and the quasi-market reform where schools are the manufacturers and children and their parents as consumers who have choices to make between different schools. In primary schools, the reforms could be noticed with the introduction of Key Stages 1 and 2, the national Curriculum with Maths, English and science as core subjects, while others were considered as foundations and religious study as statutory, the introduction of SATs and the literacy and numeracy strategies.
Friday, October 25, 2019
Alternative Medicine Although "Alternative" or "Complementary" medicine has been kept on the fringes of the medical sciences in the past, it is becoming increasingly more popular, and more reputable. Alternative medicines are those medical systems which are not taught to or practiced by most conventional medical doctors. Alternative medicines seemingly have always existed, changing and conforming to the current climate of society. There seems to be an almost endless number of alternative medicines, each with their own method of gaining perfect health. Often people who are dissatisfied with conventional medicine turn to alternative medicine for their medical needs. Many similarities link the diverse extremities of alternative medicine. These links define alternative medicine, but also help explain why they remain so controversial. They are characterized by a lack of unbiased, scientific testing, the belief in a vital force that cannot be explained scientifically, and a lack of strict regulation ensuring c ompetency and consistency among practitioners. Although these similarities exist a distinct separation must also be made between two types of alternative medical systems. The first type includes those that have "strong intellectual foundations and time tested methods of maintaining health and curing diseases" (Micozzi A48). These have established training and practice procedures and large numbers of practitioners and patients. Micozzi includes homeopathy, herbal treatment, chiropractic medicine, traditional osteopathy, and traditional Chinese medicine (acupuncture) in this first type of alternative medical systems. These are contrasted with what he refers to as "magic bullet" treatments which are usually for a specific dise... ...ailable: http//www.doubleclickd.com/theramessage.html [1996, Nov. 16]. Langone, John. "Challenging the Mainstream." Time. 148.14, 40-44, Fall, 1996. Magner, George. Chiropractic: The Victim's Perspective. Prometheus Books. Amhearst, New York: 1995. Marwick, Charles. "Time for New Head, New Approach at OAM." JAMA. 272.23, 1806-8, Dec 21, 1994. Micozzi, Marc S. "The need to Teach Alternative Medicine." The Chronicle of Higher Education. 42.9, A48, Aug. 16, 1996. Miller, James. "Critical Thinking of the Treating of Diseases: How to Avoid Quackery." Lecture Notes. The National Center for Homeopathy. (No date). Homeopathy: Natural Medicine for the 21st Century [Online]. Available: http://www.healthy.net/pan/pa/homepathic/natcenhom/ [1996, Nov. 16]. Young, James Harvey. American Health Quackery. Princeton University Press. Princeton, New Jersey: 1992. Alternative Medicine Essay -- Doctors Treatment Illness Papers Alternative Medicine Although "Alternative" or "Complementary" medicine has been kept on the fringes of the medical sciences in the past, it is becoming increasingly more popular, and more reputable. Alternative medicines are those medical systems which are not taught to or practiced by most conventional medical doctors. Alternative medicines seemingly have always existed, changing and conforming to the current climate of society. There seems to be an almost endless number of alternative medicines, each with their own method of gaining perfect health. Often people who are dissatisfied with conventional medicine turn to alternative medicine for their medical needs. Many similarities link the diverse extremities of alternative medicine. These links define alternative medicine, but also help explain why they remain so controversial. They are characterized by a lack of unbiased, scientific testing, the belief in a vital force that cannot be explained scientifically, and a lack of strict regulation ensuring c ompetency and consistency among practitioners. Although these similarities exist a distinct separation must also be made between two types of alternative medical systems. The first type includes those that have "strong intellectual foundations and time tested methods of maintaining health and curing diseases" (Micozzi A48). These have established training and practice procedures and large numbers of practitioners and patients. Micozzi includes homeopathy, herbal treatment, chiropractic medicine, traditional osteopathy, and traditional Chinese medicine (acupuncture) in this first type of alternative medical systems. These are contrasted with what he refers to as "magic bullet" treatments which are usually for a specific dise... ...ailable: http//www.doubleclickd.com/theramessage.html [1996, Nov. 16]. Langone, John. "Challenging the Mainstream." Time. 148.14, 40-44, Fall, 1996. Magner, George. Chiropractic: The Victim's Perspective. Prometheus Books. Amhearst, New York: 1995. Marwick, Charles. "Time for New Head, New Approach at OAM." JAMA. 272.23, 1806-8, Dec 21, 1994. Micozzi, Marc S. "The need to Teach Alternative Medicine." The Chronicle of Higher Education. 42.9, A48, Aug. 16, 1996. Miller, James. "Critical Thinking of the Treating of Diseases: How to Avoid Quackery." Lecture Notes. The National Center for Homeopathy. (No date). Homeopathy: Natural Medicine for the 21st Century [Online]. Available: http://www.healthy.net/pan/pa/homepathic/natcenhom/ [1996, Nov. 16]. Young, James Harvey. American Health Quackery. Princeton University Press. Princeton, New Jersey: 1992.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
With the emergence of a highly dynamic global economic system, and with new competitors constantly arriving on the scene, businesses are constantly finding ways to increase efficiency and effectiveness to stay viable to meet present and future work demands. The Human Resource Management (Ã¢â¬Å"HRMÃ¢â¬ ) function exercised effectively in many businesses has overtime proven to have significant impacts on business results, thus becoming increasingly influential in the formulation of business strategies. This paper seeks to discuss the increasing importance of HRM in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s businesses, with a focus on the four key roles identified by Dave Ulrich (1993) that Human Resource (Ã¢â¬Å"HRÃ¢â¬ ) managers of today should play to rise up to impending challenges, in response to the purpose of this assignment. This paper will also attempt to define and interpret existing HRM concepts and theories and to highlight their differences and respective roles in the shaping of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s businesses. It will also draw some examples of good strategic HRM practices in some of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s most successful global companies. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s businesses all around the world, the fundamental attributions for a business to thrive in an ever-changing and demanding society have drastically undergone an overhaul in recent years to suit and adapt to change. With vast advancements in technology and better infrastructure in place, businesses are able to operate more efficiently in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society than before. However, the most essential ingredient in all successful businesses is its people, or what is termed today as Ã¢â¬Ëhuman assetÃ¢â¬â¢. Good staff are the heart and blood of businesses, driving them to achieve strategic objectives and goals. With such realisation, the HRM function in a business has been identified as a key role in the sustenance of business success and how it can be better positioned to gain a competitive stance through the effective management of its people. To attempt to precisely define HRM will result in more confusion and contradiction, particularly due to the case of its constant comparison with Personnel Management (Ã¢â¬Å"PMÃ¢â¬ ). Worthy to note, Noon (1994:23) states that though HRM is comparatively new to many countries, in the USA the HRM term has been used over fifty years as an alternative name for PM and that the two terms are synonymous. Pre 1980s, PM was largely viewed as the human face of management. Torrington and Hall (1991) puts forth that: Thus it can be seen that PM is more work-force-centred, directed primarily at the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s employees; sourcing and training them, arranging for remuneration, defining management expectations, tending to employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s work-related needs, dealing with their problems and seeking to modify management action, which tend to produce unhappy employees and unwelcomed responses. Such is the Ã¢â¬ËhardÃ¢â¬â¢ approach of managing people, viewing an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s employees as a cost, which needs to be tightly budgeted. People under the PM system are viewed as resources in the same way as any other business resources, and thus, indisputable never totally identified with the management interests. Thus surfaces a Ã¢â¬Å"gapÃ¢â¬ between human resource and business strategies, with the management and employees mediating the needs of each to the other. Tichy, Fombrun and Devanna (1982) state that: It was during the 1980s that HRM took on a new meaning as it grew and broadened as it focused on strategic and business concerns according to Tichy et. al. (1984) and Freedman (1991). It was identified with a strategic approach, bridging the link of managing of people to the achievement of business objectives. HRM was becoming more influential across regions like South Africa and Australasia and soon, it found itself being integrated into the local business cultures. HRM took upon the role of strategically managing the utilization of human resources at its optimum level. It strived for a seamless link between business policies and HR policies, and looked upon employees as resources distinct from the other resources, striving for a more humanistic approach. Drawing on such ideas, Alan Price (2004) defines HRM in the new age as: As such, HRM is viewed as a more resource-centred approach directed primarily at managing the need for human capital. This could be attributed to the Ã¢â¬ËsoftÃ¢â¬â¢ approach of HRM, which view its employees as a core asset. Human capital is thus defined not only to include employees of the business, but also to encompass the management as a whole unit whose interests can only be enhanced through the inclination of effective and integrated overall management of all the businessÃ¢â¬â¢ processes and units. Henry and Pettigrew support this belief that the strategic character of HRM is distinctive. HRM is said to be based on a management and business-oriented philosophy. This is perhaps the most significant point differentiating HRM from traditional personnel management in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s organizations. With more upcoming challenges ahead in an unpredictable future working environment, businesses are shifting their paradigm to adopt the HRM approach for its flexibility and proven means of producing results in the long run. If HRM is going to rise to such challenges, Dave Ulrich (1993) identified a four-pronged approach that managers can undertake to make the transition successfully. They are to play the roles of: * Administrative expert Ulrich asserts that HR needs to add value by acting as a partner with line management. He notes Ã¢â¬Å"HR professionals add value to a business when they use their expertise to link internal organization and management practices to external business requirements.Ã¢â¬ He reckons that HR managers must be effective through their management so as to create value within the organization. * Employee champion Ulrich reckons that a good HR manager is one who is able to relate and meet the needs of employees, at the same time be their voice in the organization so as to provide assurance and seeking of new resources for their betterment. Jack Welch, CEO of General Electric (2001) formulated the Ã¢â¬Å"BoundarylessÃ¢â¬ concept in the company where he took ideas to the bottom line of his thriving organization. He successfully removed barriers within the organization functions, encouraged employees to voice out any new ideas they had and assigned managers who were committed to the sharing of these ideas with the board and realizing them. As a result, employees were not only rewarded and recognized, but gained much credit for contributing to the company, thus boosting levels of employee confidence and commitment. * Change Agent Ulrich points out that HR managers must be able to manage change, simultaneously acting as a catalyst for change. In the ever-changing global economy, change is inevitable in organizations where staying cost-effective to gain competitive advantage is of priority. Change is seen as a means of psyching the business up to possible uncertainties in the present and future environment. HR managers thus must be able to lead functional change and exert influence over the organization by being observant and responsive towards change to ensure that the business stays viable. They need to constantly monitor the organization to determine the need for change and implementing it successfully alongside organization objectives and values. Ulrich further states that the distinction between those who succeed and fail is Ã¢â¬Å"the ability to respond to the pace of changeÃ¢â¬ . Bill Hewlett and David Packard who founded Hewlett Packard said of managing change and growth: * Strategic partner Ulrich states that HR managers should shoulder the role of being a strategic business partner in the translation of business objectives into action. They must thus be able to develop new ideas and contribute to the making of business decisions within the organization on top of effective people management. HRM is thus seen as part of an integrated and coherent function in the business process. Ulrich highlights the increasingly complex and paradoxical roles the HR professionals must perform to better understand HRM functions and to add value in the organization by helping line managers align strategies and processes with the business needs of the organization. Legge (1989) also provides that that HRM concentrates more on what is done to managers than what is done by manager to the employees. He also reinforces that there is a more proactive role for line managers and for top management to manage culture. Thus is the focus on the true effectiveness and value of the HRM function and if streamlining its processes and redefining HR manager relationships with line managers would define new competencies for HR managers. But is definitely sufficient to say that the role of HR is dramatically changing as how Ulrich (1993), Schuler (1990) and Walker (1992) have recognized it to be. The HR function has systematically gained prominence. Senior HR professionals have made the shift from just being just Ã¢â¬Ëanother functioning role in the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢ to being key members of the senior management team. Noble (1994) captures this transition by stating, Ã¢â¬Å"competition has taken human resources from the backwater to the boardroom.Ã¢â¬ Since then, several formal theoretical models of Human Resource Strategy have started to appear as early as 1984, which served as analytical views to better comprehend the development of HRM and are loosely regarded as representatives for the profession. Among them are: * Fombrun, Tichy and DevannaÃ¢â¬â¢s Matching Model It seeks to internally unify activities with the HR function and business strategy. It aims to achieve a Ã¢â¬ËmatchÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËfitÃ¢â¬â¢ between the two functions. It has its focus on work systems and job designs, making HRM seem to evolve in a social vacuum. * The Harvard Model Produced by Beer, Spector, Lawrence, Quinn Mills and Walton (1984), it provides a broad yet casual depiction of the determinants and consequences of the implementation of HR policies. In this model, situational factors together with stakeholderÃ¢â¬â¢s interests are taken into account to influence the formulation of HR policies and outcomes. It concentrates on high commitment as the ideal state of the work force. The Stakeholder theory in this context sets out to prove the varying degrees of influence and impact that stakeholders can have on the conduct and progress of the organization. The main aim is to commit and coordinate the interests of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s stakeholders while directing the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s primary activities. * The Warwick Model An extension of the Harvard Model by Hendry and Pettigrew (1990), it emphasizes the importance of external and internal environmental impacts on HRM and is more oriented to the process of change. * GuestÃ¢â¬â¢s Model Guest (1989) adapted the Harvard Model by basing his analysis on the four HR outcomes, and developing these into four policy goals: commitment, flexibility strategic integration and quality. This prescriptive model seeks to see these goals as a coherent package that needs to be achieved for desired organization outcomes. * The Storey Model John Storey (1993) stated that Ã¢â¬Å"the ability to take, and implement a strategic view of the whole range of the personnel practices in relation to business activity as a wholeÃ¢â¬ is the basic distinction between traditional personnel management and HRM. StoreyÃ¢â¬â¢s theoretical model is based on conceptions on how organizations have been transformed from predominantly personnel/IR practices to HRM practices. These influential HRM Models serve as a means of developing strategies and formulation of policies to support current business infrastructure and provides a framework of current concept, assumptions and theories of HRM practices in the real world today. Ulrich (1993) asserts that HR needs to add value by acting as a partner with line management. He notes Ã¢â¬Å"HR professionals add value to a business when they use their expertise to link internal organization and management practices to external business requirements.Ã¢â¬ To assess HRM outcomes and to define its processes in this new day and age is subjected to numerous debates as to the use of the ideal method in the effective management of people. HRM is evolving in tune to the gradual yet subtle phasing out of traditional PM in most modern organizations today. It can thus be concluded aptly that a successful organization is nothing without good staff, emphasizing once again, the importance of good HRM practices in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s businesses and the integral role it plays in the with regards to the management of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s core asset Ã¢â¬â Its people. Ã REFERENCES Price, Alan. (2004), Human Resource Management in a Business Context, 2nd Edition, Thomson Learning. Stone, J. Raymond. (2002), human Resource Management, 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd. Torrington, Derek. and Hall, Laura. (1998), Human Resource Management, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall Europe. Torrington, Derek. and Hall, Laura. (1991), Personnel Management: A New Approach, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall. Ulrich, Dave. and Smallwood, Norm. (2003), Why the Bottom Line IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t!, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Welch, Jack. with Byrne A, John. (2001), JACK: What IÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned leading a great company and great people, Headline Book Publishing Great Britain. MGW2430 Human Resource Management Averil Chan Si Wan (19603363)