Saturday, November 30, 2019

Medieval Weapons Essays - Projectile Weapons, Medieval Warfare

Medieval Weapons Medieval Weapons were (are) very dangerous. They Can kill, puncture, wound, hurt, or anything else. All weapons From the Middle Ages were looked upon as frightening and crucial Tools to kill. From a small dagger to a large cannon; all weapons Would kill, no doubt about it. A lot, in fact most of the weapons were used for siege and Defense against castles. Castles were the most integral part of the Middle Ages. They held the king, the servants and anyone else Important. If you wanted land or money, a castle was the perfect Place to hit. Movable Towers were just one thing used to lay siege on These castles. Not necessarily a weapon itself, it held Weapons...knights and peasants. Knights and (or) peasants carried many weapons depending On what specialty they had. Some carried bows-and-arrows, others Maces, some swords, some knifes, etc. A mace was a metal ball with metal spikes welded on the Ball. A chain was attached to a wood stick onto the ball. The Mace would not kill only torture. Other siege weapons included the ballista, a HUGE Crossbow- like slingshot that could send a huge tree trunk 3 football fields Long. The ballasta was manly for breaking down castle walls, or for scattering A heavily guarded area. The most commonly used weapon was the sword. It was a long metal Object that was very sharp on both sides. The sword could actually cut the Sheet metal on modern day cars. Imagine this power through your neck! Next to the sword, the "soldiers" held a small dagger in a pouch on Their belt. This was used to finish people off, as a last resort, or sometimes Even suicide missions. Trebuchet, the name strikes fear in people's eyes, a HUMONGOUS Slingshot that could send a big monkeys boulder 2 football fields. This Weapon could be used to demolish castle walls, or could even be used to kill Hundreds of people on the battlefield. Anyway used, it was a big dangerous Weapon. Medieval Warfare and Weaponry In the Middle Ages, the nobility of many cultures had large fortifications built to house a small town as well as themselves. These fortification were called castles, and they were so well defended that some historians have called it the most formidable weapon of medieval warfare (Hull 1). As one can imagine, conquering such a colossal structure cost much money, even more time, and many lives. There were three main ways to infiltrate a castle; each no more common than the other two. The first way to conquer to castle is known as the siege. In a siege, an army would bar passageways into the castle, and continue to pound away at the castle's defenses until it was vulnerable to a final attack. In this form of assault, the attacking party did not have to approach the castle, as was required in a storm, the second way to attack a castle. In a siege, large projectiles from catapults often bombarded the ramparts of the castle. Hunger, plague, or actual weapons such as Greek fire arrows killed off the defenders of the castle. Greek fire was a mixture comprised of highly flammable substances that was agonizingly hot. Bits of cloth were dipped into the Greek fire compound and wrapped it behind the head of an arrow, and then lit on fire. Yet another common tactic in the siege was undermining. Undermining was the digging of tunnels underneath towers. However, the purposes of such subt erranean activity were not for passage, but to create instability in the towers and in the end cause their disintegration. The second, more certain form of attack upon a castle was the blockade. To blockade a place was to preclude all entry and departure from the site. In doing so to a castle, one limited their food supply, for a castle, unlike a manor, could not survive unless contact with the outer world could be attained. However, starving a castle out was costly in both money and especially time. For a long while an army waited for the castle to deplete their resources, the army itself had to continue to supply themselves with such resources and the soldiers were to be paid for their vigilant act. Although it was costly and lengthy, blockade did work. Richard the Lionhearted's stronghold, the Chateau-Gaillard, which was built in only a year along the Seine River, was sacked on March 6, 1204 by

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Definition, Insights and Examples of Dramatic Irony

Definition, Insights and Examples of Dramatic Irony Dramatic irony, also known as tragic irony, is an occasion in a play, film, or other work in which a characters words or actions convey a meaning unperceived by the character but understood by the audience. Nineteenth-century critic Connop Thirlwall is often credited with developing the modern notion of dramatic irony, although the concept is ancient and Thirwall himself never used the term.   Examples and Observations Dramatic irony is profoundly visible in works of tragedy; in fact, dramatic irony is sometimes equated with tragic irony. For example, in Sophocles Oedipus Rex, the audience clearly detects long before he does that Oedipus acts are tragic mistakes.  In theater, dramatic irony  refers to a situation in which the audience has knowledge denied to one or more of the characters on stage. In the above example of dramatic irony, the audience is aware that a characters actions or words will ​bring about his downfall long before the character realizes it.In A Series of Unfortunate Events: The Bad Beginning and the Reptile Room, Lemony Snicket says, Simply put, dramatic irony is when a person makes a harmless remark, and someone else who hears it knows something that makes the remark have a different, and usually unpleasant, meaning. For instance, if you were in a restaurant and said out loud, I cant wait to eat the veal marsala I ordered, and there were people around who knew that the veal marsala was poisoned and that you would die as soon as you took a bite, your situation would be one of dramatic irony. The function of dramatic irony is to sustain the readers interest, pique curiosity, and create a contrast between the situation of the characters and the episode that ultimately unfolds. This leads to the audience waiting in fear, anticipation, and hope, waiting for the moment when the character learns the truth behind the events of the story. Readers end up sympathizing with the main characters, hence the irony.In Francois Trauffauts Hitchcock, Alfred Hitchcock is quoted as saying, Let us suppose that there is a bomb underneath this table between us. Nothing happens, and then all of a sudden, Boom! There is an explosion. The public is surprised, but prior to this surprise, it has seen an absolutely ordinary scene, of no special consequence. Now, let us take a suspense situation. The bomb is underneath the table and the audience knows it, probably because they have seen the anarchist place it there. The public is aware that the bomb is going to explode at one o’clock and there is a clock in the decor. The public can see that it is a quarter to one. In these conditions, this same innocuous conversation becomes fascinating because the public is participating in the scene. The audience is longing to warn the characters on the screen: You shouldn’t be talking about such trivial matters. There’s a bomb beneath you and it’s about to explode! Also See IronySituational IronyVerbal IronyWhat Is Irony?

Friday, November 22, 2019

Conjugating Comer in Spanish

Conjugating Comer in Spanish Comer is a common Spanish verb to eat and has most of the meanings that the English verb has. Most commonly, comer means simply to consume food through the mouth: Me gusta comer pizza sin anchoas. I like to eat pizza without anchovies.El comer es uno de los placeres de la vida. Eating is one of the pleasures of life.Comieron en el aeropuerto de Lima antes de abordar el avià ³n. They ate at the Lima airport before boarding the plane.Leah come como un pajarito. Leah eats like a bird. Sometimes, depending on the context, comer refers specifically to eating lunch or dinner. Desayunamos en casa y comemos en el camino. Were eating breakfast at home and eating lunch on the road. Like eat up, comer can be used colloquially to suggest immense pleasure: Mi abuela comià ³ el libro. My grandmother ate up the book. Comer can be used figuratively to refer to corrosion, erosion or the eating up of something by natural processes. The translation varies with the context: El mar comià ³ toda la arena. The sea washed away all the sand.El cido comià ³ el concreto de la cisterna. The acid ate away at the tanks concrete. Similarly, the reflexive form comerse can be used in a variety of ways to indicate that something is swallowed up or otherwise consumed or missing:  ¿Cuntas pginas se comieron? How many pages were missing?Parece que se comià ³ la letra N. It looks like the letter N was omitted.La inflacià ³n se come el ahorro de la gente. Inflation is eating up the peoples savings. The reflexive form is also sometimes used to add emphasis. In such a case, the difference between comer and comerse is roughly the difference between to eat and to eat up. Los chicos se comieron todos los dulces. The boys ate up all the candy. Comer is conjugated regularly, following the pattern of beber.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

New Product to the Market (Timed Drink Dispenser) Essay

New Product to the Market (Timed Drink Dispenser) - Essay Example It is also cheap and hence affordable to most people all over the nation. Market segmentation involves marketing strategies that are used for classifying a broad market into subsets of consumers with similar needs for the product (Kotler 68). The specific characteristics of the product are divided into different categories of age, location and family size. The marketing strategies are designed to target specific customers. Segmenting helps in measurability, which is determining whether a particular segment is fit enough to be pursued. Accessibility is also a criteria in segmenting which entails reaching a given target group, where a region where people pay less attention is inaccessible. Demographic segmentation is also used to classify the market by dividing it into the variables of age, location and even family size. Demographic segmentation is great for segmenting customers into different groups, where customers are linked to the variables and segmented accordingly. Segmenting of the market involves dividing it into groups of consumers with similar wants. Consumer based market segmentation is performed on a specific product basis so as to create a close relationship between the consumers and the product. This demographic segmentation helps in identifying groups of similar consumers and the potential ones. ... The target market is mainly young people in the mid years since they may use the dispenser a lot in carrying alcohol and some types of beverages. Most youngsters prefer carrying beverages around and this dispenser is efficient for them since its pocket friendly, portable and can hold a lot of drinks. Most consumers’ preferences vary with age, in this case very young children may not see the essence of this dispenser but a bit older youngsters will know its importance. Psychographic segmentation is also essential since it helps to understand the consumers’ lifestyle. Product positioning is the next step in product introduction after the target market has been identified. Positioning entails ascertaining a product and how the potential consumers view it. Segmenting helps in matching the consumer’s needs, reduces expenses, improves cash flows and improves productivity. To reach this group of customers, a lot of advertising is involved. Using demographic segmentation we target the young and also large families. With a family of six the dispenser can hold drinks to keep them going all day since the dispensers vary in size and one can get the required one. When considering the potential market for a new product, the size of the market is important since it determines the profit margins that will be gained from the product (Kotler 212). The target group should be stable since the product should be in the market long enough to break even. The potential customers should be easy to reach, that is promotions and distribution channels should reach them. The product can also be reached cost efficiently by the market intervention. The product has many benefits to the consumers since its cheap and readily available; it is portable by those going for picnics and

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Analytical Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Analytical - Essay Example The prosperity of a country, according to Han Fei, can be safeguarded only when the lawmakers and the law-keepers are strong and efficient. A king is not defined by his personal failings but by his ability to ensure the maintenance and applications of public laws. Along with a strong upper hand in dealing with public laws, he must also be ruthless in suppressing internal conspiracies and disputes, for a kingdom that is weak from within will always be an easy and constant target of the enemy clans. Intended Audience Having reviewed Han Fei’s political musings, drawn from Han Feizi, I think it is important to ascertain the intended audience at whom this particular tract was aimed. I believe, given the author’s own politically charged background as well as exalted lineage, it can be safely said that much of his political strategies were drawn from personal experience and was intended to address the ruling class in particular. Reflections of the Author on Politics and Penal ties With great humanist emphasis on equality, he puts forward his thoughts on royal duties and legalities of the time. Han Fei, himself of royal descent, plainly spurns the unequal treatment often carried out by law keepers. He insists that there should be no unjust preferences given to the nobility. The common and the noble subject should all be treated as equal in the eyes of law. No one should try to gain favors by bribery or flattery. The guilty must be punished, and no offender should be allowed lenience, notwithstanding the exalted rank of the criminal or the humbleness of the victim. Lewdness and sexual excess must be suppressed as should internal discord and discontent. And according to Han Fei, the only way this can be achieved is by inculcating a deep fear of retribution within his subjects. The superiority of a ruler can be ascertained by the way he handles and controls his ministers and advisors. They may be negotiated only through two operative actions of the king: des erved adulation and acclaim upon great achievement or service; and severe punishment, torture and death upon defection or conspiracy. In conclusion, I believe, Han Fei’s legal philosophies seeks the better conditions of the masses even while advocating the most ruthless measures in ensuring the precedence of the sovereign ruler. Analysis of ‘Be a Scribe’ Purpose of the Author Han Fei was a follower of the Great Historian Laozi, who countered the Confucian practice of the art of persuasive speech by placing vital emphasis on the art of writing instead. The post-Confucian legacy of Laozi’s creative and artistic philosophy reaches its fruitful zenith in the hands of Han Fei. It is told that Han Fei himself suffered from a speech impediment - an embarrassing stammer - that did not bode well for a career of oral mastery. Therefore, he was inclined, both by nature and by habit, to improve upon his calligraphy and immense gift of the written word and in his text, he intends his audience to do the same. In his instructive work, Be a Scribe, he begins with a direct address to the reader. He exhorts us to pursue the noble art of scripting, to eschew dancing and replace the sports and hunting with the finer activity of writing. The master then goes on to unfavorably compare the pursuit of â€Å"the scroll and the palette†

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Leadership and Management Paper Essay Example for Free

Leadership and Management Paper Essay At a very young age, George Washington Carver took a strong grip on his destiny. This dynamic leader prevailed over getting born without a name into slavery, overcoming poverty, and prejudice to commit his life in helping others achieve a better livelihood. Through his actions, he was able to earn high levels of respect of self-worth, dignity, honor, and infinite achievement. Booker T. Washington was the first president and principal of the Tuskegee Institute in 1896. Booker T. Washington sent an invitation to George W. Carver to reside over the Agriculture Department. For 47 years Carver developed, taught, and applied constant research in working to develop several methods from using crop-based materials. Carver was the innovator of going green. Through his tenure he worked with two additional college presidents that supported the zealous work of Carver. His discovering and teaching methods of crop rotation while introducing several alternative money crops for farmers that simultaneously improving the soil of heavily cultivated cotton fields would motivate and inspire many Black students to follow suite in his techniques. (Kouzes Posner, 2009) â€Å"A leader’s dynamic does not come from special powers. It comes from a strong belief in a purpose and a willingness to express that conviction.† In leadership, Carver designed a mobile classroom that brought education to the fields of the farmers. His so-called ‘Jesup wagon’ (named after Morris Ketchum Jesup), well honored for Mr. Jesup a philanthropist and New York financier fully supported and funded the program. Leadership functions Carver had many duties as an administrator, such as administer the Agriculture Experiment Station Farms. He manages the sale and production of farm products that generated revenues for the institute. His academic career as a teacher and researcher was stellar. What made Carver different from other professors and administrators is his determination to fulfill what he believed to be right. There were many times Booker T. Washington would voice his frustrations through letters to Carver because to the way he would administer his duties, Washington would always praise Carver for the great discoveries and hard work that has taken place. (G.W. Carver, 2011) Education is the key to unlock the golden door of opportunity.† This is how his leadership is different from the rest. He proves exactly what he stated to his life. His work became very high profile because of his more than 300 uses for peanuts, pecans, sweet potatoes and soybeans with the majority of his accomplishments of conquering the mundane. Every invention came after hours during peaceful nature walks, observing, and later testing in his laboratory. After Carver came to success, he did not cite ingenuity, though he was very blessed with it. On the contrary, he remarked that 99% of the failures come about people who have the habit of making excuses. Carver also well notes that, â€Å"When you do the common things in life in an uncommon way, you will command the attention of the world† pg. 143 of Frontage Magazine. Obstacles George W. Carver is someone whom many can only look up too when problems come into our lives for comparison sake. Carver beats the odds so well that his name should never had been heard of. His mission, determination, and story defy the odds. Being born into slavery a raider kidnapped him as an infant, and was not expected to live past the age of 21 because of poor health and being a Black scientist in the harsh times of racial segregation is beyond the norm. After the death of Carver, the United States Government erected the first national monument to honor someone other that a president. Effective Leader – Common Measures George W. Carver was best known in his time as a man of faith who believes in God as science as a gift from God. He would constantly acknowledge that his work was inspired by the works of God and God’s inspiring, and guiding him in his work. When those who wanted things from Carver such as his  secrets without the desire to work for the knowledge, Carvers replay would be, ‘God refuses to reveal the secrets of the humankind and the universe. Within the readings and teachings of the text, Carver proves his effective leadership skills for success present. To be a leader whom everyone will want to immolate, it takes the extraordinary levels of strong will, determination, someone who can listen and follow, and the ability effectively to move those whom you lead in a positive direction fostering a successful outcome. Conclusion Carver’s faith was his concern of character that his students whom he regularly taught would follow a set of cardinal virtues: ââ€"  Do not look up the rich nor down to the poor ââ€"  Be clean both inside and out ââ€"  Win without bragging ââ€"  Lose if needed but without squealing ââ€"  Be too brave to lie ââ€"  Always be considerate of women, children, and other people ââ€"  Be too generous to cheat ââ€"  Take your share of the world and let others take theirs. The world needs more women and men like George Washington Carver – people who cannot complain, strive hard and overcome adversity while focusing on the finish line ahead. Everyone does not possess the skill and knowledge of George Washington Carver but he has left us a milestone of character traits that can allow us to use as a guide while striving to achieve our goals here in this life. I like what Langston Hughes states on page 159 of Through the Fire, â€Å"Hold fast to dreams, for it dreams die, life is a broken-winged bird that cannot fly.† This goes back to how George Washington Carver spoke about excuses; they are just that, an excuse to fail. Live right, stay positive, follow the plan, persevere, and finish the race, you will for sure win. References Carver, G. W. (2011). Greatest Leaders of America History. Frontage Magazine, 32(4), 112 113. p.113 Kauzes, J., Posner, B. (2009, April). See what today will bring when you are done thinking. Whole and Complete Places, 8(13), 78 -84. p.83 Livingstrom, J. T. (1974). Through the Fire (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Harper Collins. p.154

Thursday, November 14, 2019

societhf Oppressive Societies :: Adventures Huckleberry Huck Finn Essays

Huck Finn and Oppressive Societies The world in which we live in now is much less oppressive than say the world lived in the middle of the 1800's. Up until the Civil War, the South depended on their 'peculiar institution' of slavery, in order to be productive a successful. Most people believed slavery was not wrong, but those who thought otherwise seldom tried to alter it. In general if surrounded by oppressive environment, one does not usually try to make a difference in that world. This is because people are afraid to defend what is right against a whole mass of people who believe otherwise. Huck Finn in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Billy Budd in Billy Budd, and Frederick Douglass in his autobiography all portray individuals who because of their good, innocent qualities go up against the oppression in their society. Living in an oppressive society does not always draw you to do the wrong thing you are still capable of generating change, whether it be for a certain individual or against a whole mass of people. Billy Budd starts off on the ship the "Rights of Man", Melville obviously showing his intent in the naming of the first ship. This shows that on this ship where Billy wanted to be and chose to be he had rights. That he and the other crew had choices of what to do and how to be. Then along comes the British navy and decides that they are going to take Billy aboard their ship "Power of War". This is when Billy is brought into an oppressive society. This is the navy and wartime during which rules must be followed as well as a lifestyle that must be followed. Billy is a poor innocent boy with a childish stutter. This stutter shows Billy's humane side, a flaw, as well as leading you to the thinking that he has the innocence of a child. This stutter is connected to innocence because of its childish qualities. When most children begin speaking they have some sort of stutter, which usually goes away. The stutter parallels innocence because it is showing that you are just learning how to talk and don't really comprehend the correct way to make sounds, as you grow older you learn and the stutter disappears.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Decision Model Theory Essay

Case Here we use the Thompson Lumber Company case as an example to illustrate these decision theory steps. John Thompson is the founder and president of Thompson Lumber Company, a profitable firm located in Portland, Oregon. Step 1 The problem that John Thompson identifies is whether to expand his product line by manufacturing and marketing a new product, backyard storage sheds. Step 2 * The second step is to list the alternative. * Thompson’s second step is to generate alternatives that are available to him .In decision theory the alternative is a course of action or strategy that the decision maker can choose .According to him his alternatives are to construct: 1†¢ a large new plant to manufacture the storage sheds 2†¢ a small plant, or 3†¢ no plant at all * So, the decision makers should try to make all possible alternatives ,on some occasion even the least important alternative might turn out to be the best choice. Step 3 * Third step is to identify possible outcomes. * The criteria for action are established at this time. According to Thompson there are two possible outcomes: the market for the storage sheds could be favorable means there is a high demand of the product or it could be unfavorable means that there is low demand of the product. * Optimistic decision makers tend to ignore bad outcomes; where as pessimistic managers may discount a favorable outcome. If you don’t consider all possibilities, it will be difficult to make a logical decision, and the result may be undesirable. * There may be some outcomes over which the decision maker has little or no control is known as states of nature. Step 4 * Fourth step is to list payoffs. * This step is to list payoff resulting from each possible combination of alternatives and outcomes. Because in this case he wants to maximize his profits, he use profits to evaluate each consequences .Not every decision, of course, can be based on money alone – any appropriate means of measuring benefit is acceptable. In decision theory we call such payoff or profits conditional values. Step 5 & 6 * The last two steps are to select and apply the decision theory model. * Apply it to the data to help make the decision. Selecting the model depends on the environment in which you are operating and the amount of risk and uncertainty involved. * Decision Table with condition values for Thompson TYPES OF DECISION MAKING ENVIRONMENTS * The types of decisions people make depends on how much knowledge or information they have about the situation. There are three kind of decision making environments: * Decision making under certainty. * Decision making under risk. * Decision making under uncertainty. Decision Making Under Certainty * Here the decision makers know about the certainty of consequences every alternative or decision choice has. * Naturally they will choose the alternative that will result in the best outcome. * Example: Let’s say that you have $10000 to invest for a period of one year. And you have two alternatives either to open a savings account paying 6% interest and another is investing in Govt. Treasury Bond paying 10% interest. If both the investments are secure and guaranteed, the best alternative is to choose the second investment option to gain maximum profit. Decision Making Under Risk * Here the decision Maker knows about the several possible outcomes for each alternative and the probability of occurrence of each outcome. * Example: The probability of being dealt a club is 0.25. The probability of rolling a 5 on die is 1/6. * In the decision making under risk, the decision maker usually attempts to maximize his or her expected well being. Decision theory models for business problems in this in this environment typically employ two equivalent criteria: maximization of expected monetary value and minimization of expected loss. * Expected monetary value is the weighted value of possible payoffs for each alternative Decision Making under Uncertainty * Here there are several outcomes for each alternative, and the decision maker does not know the probabilities occurrences of various outcomes. * Example The probability that a Democrat/Republican will be the President of a country 25 Years from now is not known. * The criteria that is covered in this section as follows: 1 – Maximax †¢ this criterion find the alternative that maximizes the maximum payoffs or consequence for every alternative. Here we first locate the maximum payoff with every alternative and then pick that alternative with the maximum number. This is also known as optimistic decision criterion. * Maximin †¢ this criterion finds the alternative that maximizes the minimum payoff or consequence for every alternative. Here we first locate the minimum outcome within every alternative and then pick that alternative with maximum number. This is called as pessimistic decision criterion. * Criterion of Realism: Also called as weighted average, is a compromise between an optimistic and a pessimistic decision. Let the coefficient of realism is ‘a’ selected. The coefficient is between 0 and 1. When ‘a’ is close to 1, the decision maker is optimistic about the future. When ‘a’ is close ‘0’ the decision maker is pessimistic. It helps the decision maker to build feelings about relative optimism and pessimism. * Weighted average =a (maximum in row) + (1-a)(minimum in row). * Equally likely (Laplace)-one criterion that uses all the payoffs for each alternative is the equally likely also called Laplace decision criterion. This is to fi nd alternative with highest payoff. * Minimax Regret †¢ the final decision criterion that we discuss is based on opportunity loss or regret. Expected Value of Perfect Information * Formula EVPI = A – B A = expected value with perfect information B = expected value without perfect information Calculation of (A) value: A = the best of each outcome x their prob. The best of outcomes: Best outcome= (100,000) (30,000) A= 0.6 x 100,000 + 0.4 x 30,000 = 72,000 Calculation of (B) value: B = we select the max value of each given below Outcome of each event: 0.6(50000) + 0.4 (30,000)= 42,000 0.6(100,000 -0.4(40,000)= 44,000 0.6(30,000) + 0.4(10,000)= 20,000 The max value for all computed value = 44,000 EVPI = A – B = 72,000 – 44,000 = 28,000 Expected Opportunity Loss The expected opportunity loss is the expected value of the regret for each decision (Minimax) EOL (Apartment) = $50,000(.6) + 0(.4) = 30,000 EOL (Office) = $0(.6) + 70,000(.4) = 28,000 EOL (Warehouse) = $70,000(.6) + 20,000(.4) = 50,000 Marginal Analysis * Most of our decisions are made following our â€Å"marginal analysis† of costs and benefits * To achieve a given outcome we often have to make a choice from among alternative means; we normally try to make the â€Å"least costly† choice among the available means * Sometimes our decisions result in benefits as well as costs; * How much food should you buy? * How many years of schooling should you have? * How many hours should you work? * How many workers should you hire? * How much should save/invest?

Saturday, November 9, 2019

More Than Just an Argument Essay

Argumentative essay assignments are useful learning tools for helping students to both understand key concepts and in helping students to think critically. † Module 3 Case Assignment Nassal R. Braimbridge Trident University If you have ever attended college at some point you have had to write an argumentative essay. It is used to convey your thoughts, insights, and point of view to an audience in an attempt to persuade them. Extensive research is required to provide the facts and evidence required to support your argument and diminish your opposition’s argument. Argumentative essay assignments are useful tools for helping students to both understand key concepts and in helping students to think critically. This is due to the fact that creating an argumentative essay requires a lot of thinking and analysis. When most people think of an argument, it is thought of as a being something negative but according to David H. Jonassen and Bosung Kim (2010) â€Å"Meaningful learning requires deep engagement with ideas. Deep Engagement is supported by the critical thinking skills of argumentation. ’ They also stated that â€Å"Learning to argue represents an important way of thinking that facilitates conceptual change and is essential for problem solving. † This is impart to the fact that you are using the art of persuasion, rhetoric to sell your point of view to the reader, which requires a substantial amount of facts and evidence to validate your claims and enhance the level of trust that the reader has for both you and your opinion. A well written argumentative essay will present a strong claim and can appeal to the most resistant audience. This is achieved with the application of logic, reasoning and strategic analysis. In depth research coupled with a little creativity and some confidence are also necessary. In doing this you develop critical thinking skills which is defined by Michael Scriven and Richard Paul (1987) as â€Å"the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. They also stated that â€Å"In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness. † One of the functions of higher education is to teach students how to think and a god way to do this is through argumentation. Debate as a teaching tool, has a place in pedagogical methods because it allows students to enhance critical thinking through investigating arguments, engaging in research, gathering information, performing analysis, assessing arguments, questioning assumptions, and demonstrating interpersonal skills. Initially, the researcher used debate in a Science, Technology, and Society course as a tool to introduce an experimental learning opportunity. The main objective of the course was to use a selection of modern topics in science and technology to increase communication and critical thinking. Debate was a natural fit for the course because the topic were tied to current events, and students were allowed to critically analyze a controversial topic while practicing other competencies like writing, presenting information and higher level thinking (Scott, S. 2009). Writing an argumentative essay also helps to improve conceptual understanding, as you have to put yourself in not only the shoes of your opponent but the shoes of your audience as well. This means anticipating any questions or concerns they might express and addressing them, it also gives you the opportunity to refute any arguments your opponent may have. In doing this you will be analyzing your supporting statements, determining the reason why someone would disagree with each point and what part of the issue concerns them the most. At the same time is also developing your solving skills as you trouble shoot problem before they occur and prepare for them. Argumentative essay assignments are useful learning useful learning tools. They foster the development of students’ critical thinking skills their conceptual understanding and problem solving abilities. It promotes creativity and confidence while improving students’ writing skills. A student’s rhetorical skills are also developed along with their presentation skills when they complete argumentative essay assignments. Work Cited Jonassen, D. , Kim, B. , (2010). Arguing to learn and learning to argue: design justifications and guidelines. Educational Technology Research ; Development. 58(4). 39-458. Scott, S. (2009). Perceptions of students’ learning critical thinking through debate in a technology classroom: A case study. Journal of Technology Studies. 34(1): 39-45. Michael Scriven, Richard Paul (1987). Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking. Retrieved from: http://www. criticalthinking. org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766 Purdue Online Writing Lab (2011). Argumentative Essay. Retrieved from: http://owl. english. purdue. edu/owl/resource/685/05/

Thursday, November 7, 2019

250 Million Years of Turtle Evolution

250 Million Years of Turtle Evolution In a way, turtle evolution is an easy story to follow: the basic turtle body plan arose very early in the history of life (during the late Triassic period), and has persisted pretty much unchanged down to the present day, with the usual variations in size, habitat, and ornamentation. As with most other types of animals, though, the turtle evolutionary tree includes its share of missing links (some identified, some not), false starts, and short-lived episodes of gigantism. Turtles That Werent: Placodonts of the Triassic Period Before discussing the evolution of genuine turtles, its important to say a few words about convergent evolution: the tendency of creatures that inhabit roughly the same ecosystems to develop roughly the same body plans. As you probably already know, the theme of squat, stubby-legged, slow-moving animal with a big, hard shell to defend itself against predators has been repeated numerous times throughout history: witness dinosaurs like Ankylosaurus and Euoplocephalus and giant Pleistocene mammals like Glyptodon and Doedicurus. This brings us to the placodonts, an obscure family of Triassic reptiles closely related to the plesiosaurs and pliosaurs of the Mesozoic Era. The poster genus for this group, Placodus, was an unremarkable-looking creature that spent most of its time on land, but some of its marine relativesincluding Henodus, Placochelys, and Psephodermalooked uncannily like genuine turtles, with their stubby heads and legs, hard shells, and tough, sometimes toothless beaks. These marine reptiles were as close as you could get to turtles without actually being turtles; sadly, they went extinct as a group about 200 million years ago. The First Turtles Paleontologists still havent identified the exact family of prehistoric reptiles that spawned modern turtles and tortoises, but they do know one thing: it wasnt the placodonts. Lately, the bulk of the evidence points to an ancestral role for Eunotosaurus, a late Permian reptile whose wide, elongated ribs curved over its back (a striking adumbration of the hard shells of later turtles). Eunotosaurus itself seems to have been a pareiasaur, an obscure family of ancient reptiles the most notable member of which was the (completely unshelled) Scutosaurus. Until recently, fossil evidence linking the land-dwelling Eunotosaurus and the giant, marine turtles of the late Cretaceous period was sorely lacking. That all changed in 2008 with two major discoveries: first up was the late Jurassic, western European Eileanchelys, touted by researchers as the earliest marine turtle yet identified. Unfortunately, only a few weeks later, Chinese paleontologists announced the discovery of Odontochelys, which lived a whopping 50 million years earlier. Crucially, this soft-shelled marine turtle possessed a full set of teeth, which subsequent turtles gradually shed over tens of millions of years of evolution. (A new development as of June 2015: researchers have identified a late Triassic proto-turtle, Pappochelys, that was intermediate in form between Eunotosaurus and Odontochelys and thus fills an important gap in the fossil record!) Odontochelys prowled the shallow waters of eastern Asia about 220 million years ago; another important prehistoric turtle, Proganochelys, pops up in the western European fossil record about 10 million years later. This much bigger turtle had fewer teeth than Odontochelys, and the prominent spikes on its neck meant that it couldnt fully retract its head under its shell (it also possessed  an ankylosaur-like clubbed tail). Most important, the carapace of Proganochelys was fully baked: hard, snug and pretty much impervious to hungry predators. The Giant Turtles of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras By the early Jurassic period, about 200 million years ago, prehistoric turtles and tortoises were pretty much locked into their modern body plans, though there was still room for innovation. The most notable turtles of the Cretaceous period were a pair of marine giants, Archelon and Protostega, both measuring about 10 feet long from head to tail and weighing about two tons. As you might expect, these giant turtles were equipped with broad, powerful front flippers, the better to propel their bulk through the water; their closest living relative is the much smaller (less than one ton) Leatherback. You have to fast-forward about 60 million years, to the Pleistocene epoch, to find prehistoric turtles that approached the size of this duo (this doesnt mean that  giant turtles werent around in the intervening years, just that we havent found much evidence). The one-ton, southern Asian Colossochelys (formerly classified as a species of Testudo) can pretty much be described as a plus-sized Galapagos tortoise, while the slightly smaller Meiolania from Australia improved on the basic turtle body plan with a spiked tail and a huge, weirdly armored head. (By the way, Meiolania received its nameGreek for little wandererin reference to the contemporary Megalania, a two-ton monitor lizard.) The turtles mentioned above all belong to the cryptodire family, which accounts for the vast majority of marine and terrestrial species. But no discussion about prehistoric turtles would be complete without a mention of the aptly named Stupendemys, a two-ton pleurodire turtle of Pleistocene South America (what distinguishes pleurodire from cryptodire turtles is that they pull their heads into their shells with a sideways, rather than a front-to-back, motion). Stupendemys was far and away the largest freshwater turtle that ever lived; most modern side-necks weigh about 20 pounds, max! And while were on the subject, lets not forget the comparably ginormous Carbonemys, which may have done battle with the giant prehistoric snake Titanoboa 60 million years ago in the swamps of South America.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

How To Rediscover The Joy Of Writing

How To Rediscover The Joy Of Writing How To Rediscover The Joy Of Writing How To Rediscover The Joy Of Writing By Sharon Most people get into the writing business because they love to write. In fact, they cant imagine doing anything else. However, when you write for a living, you may sometimes feel as if youre writing by rote and as if the joy of writing has completely evaporated. Almost every freelance writer that I know has experienced this at least once. Its time to do something about it before the joy disappears completely. Here are some of the steps that I take. Sometimes it helps to step away from the computer. When you spend most of every day there, its no surprise that you might feel a bit stale from time to time. I find exercise very helpful in clearing my brain, so I go for a walk or if I really want to torture myself take a spin class. Reading has always been one of my favorite forms of relaxation. When youre trying to refresh your ideas, the trick is to read something completely different. When Im relaxing, I almost never read about mortgages or loans. Instead, I pick up a good biography or a trashy novel and lose myself in someone elses life. Its amazing how many good ideas you can get by doing that. The best writing appeals to people. If you work at home, you may not meet many people, but you can still find out what they think. Watch some daytime TV or get out there and talk to your friends. When you distract your brain from the subject at hand, then theres lots of room for ideas to flood in. Write for fun. For me, this is one way of recharging my batteries. Instead of working on an ebook or an article about property, I can experiment with a short story or a poem. Turning my thoughts in a different direction can flick a mental switch and get the creative juices flowing again. Take a challenge. Theres always a writing challenge going on urging you to talk about your successes, give writing tips, satirize a famous writer, write a piece of flash fiction or another form of writing. These give writers the chance to try something new. At worst, it makes a change. At best, writers will discover another form of writing that they love, and find the joy of writing again. These are some of the steps that have worked for me. I do have off days, but I still love what I do. What works for you when youre feeling burned out? Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Freelance Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:35 Synonyms for â€Å"Look†Confusing "Passed" with "Past"How to Treat Names of Groups and Organizations

Saturday, November 2, 2019

The socail responsibility of business is to increase its profit Essay

The socail responsibility of business is to increase its profit - Essay Example Social responsibility of a business means the responsibilities which the business must undertake for the betterment of the society. These are the policies and programmes which a business must pursue for the general upliftment of the society. The business must be concerned about the welfare of their customers, employees and the society on the whole.The idea behind assuming social responsibility by the business is to help for the rapid development of the society besides increasing the profits of the business. In the ancient times the businesses were concerned only about increasing the profits. But the modern business has to undertake certain social responsibilities also. The difference between traditional business and modern business is that the former is concerned only about economic and technical objectives while the latter extends it to social responsibilities as well.There are various authors who have supported the idea of assuming social responsibilities by the business. On the ot her hand some authors feel that the question of assuming social responsibility by the business falls outside the scope of business. Milton Friedmen is of this view.According to Friedmen the political principal capitalism will be affected if the business assumes social responsibility. In a capitalist economy the business firm has the complete freedom of using its available resources in a manner it wants. But if the business firms are compelled to assume social responsibility the political principle of capitalism will be violated.... The owners will have main objective of maximising the profit. Therefore the managers have no right to direct the resources of the firm for any other purpose other than for the purpose of increasing the profits. There are various constraints which blocks a manager from assuming social responsibility. The corporate managers are trained to increase the profits and they do not have any idea about the manner in which they can improve social well-being of the people. Milton Friedmen feels that the principle of taxation would be violated if the business undertakes social responsibility, because the business will be using the money of the people for undertaking some measures for the betterment of the society. And this is similar to the taxes imposed by the government. The taxes imposed by the government and the money which the business use for undertaking social responsibility are similar because both the government and the business are using the money of the citizens for the benefit of the society. The government asks taxes from the public only for undertaking some social functions. And the right of taxes is given only to the government. So the business has no right to take money from the public for undertaking social works. If the people feel that they should contribute something for the betterment of the society they can use their own resources for undertaking these works. Friedmen believes that if we bring the concept of social responsibilities into the business it will amount to bringing socialism into the business which will be against the principle of capitalism or a free-enterprise economy. In a free enterprise economy the business firm has full freedom to use the available resources of the economy for maximising the profits. Only in a socialist